E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis

Journal article


Rahman, Muhammad, Hann, Nicholas, Wilson, Andrew, Mnatzaganian, George and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2015. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One (online). 10 (3), pp. 1 - 16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122544
AuthorsRahman, Muhammad, Hann, Nicholas, Wilson, Andrew, Mnatzaganian, George and Worrall-Carter, Linda
Abstract

Background: E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation. Objectives: To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation. Data Sources: A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Methods: Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated. Results: Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97). Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18%) reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28). Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used. Limitations: Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis. Conclusions: Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More randomised controlled trials are needed to assess effectiveness against other cessation methods.

Year2015
JournalPLoS One (online)
Journal citation10 (3), pp. 1 - 16
ISSN1932-6203
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122544
Open accessOpen access
Page range1 - 16
Research GroupMary MacKillop Institute for Health Research
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Choice of controls for a case-control study in Bangladesh : Hospital controls versus community controls
Rahman, Muhammad Aziz, Spurrier, Nicola, Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal, Rahman, Mahmudur, Choudhury, Sohel Reza and Leeder, Stephen 2012. Choice of controls for a case-control study in Bangladesh : Hospital controls versus community controls. Asian Journal of Epidemiology. 5 (3), pp. 75 - 86. https://doi.org/10.3923/aje.2012.75.86
Reason's accident causation model : Application to adverse events in acute care
Elliott, Malcolm, Page, Karen Nicola and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2012. Reason's accident causation model : Application to adverse events in acute care. Contemporary Nurse: Health care across the lifespan. 43 (1), pp. 14 - 20. https://doi.org/10.5172/conu.2012.43.1.22
Recognition and referral of depression in patients with heart disease
Worrall-Carter, Linda, Ski, Chantal, Thompson, David, Davidson, Patricia M., Cameron, Janette, Castle, David and Page, Karen Nicola 2012. Recognition and referral of depression in patients with heart disease. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 11 (2), pp. 231 - 238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2011.04.005
Is there any association between use of smokeless tobacco products and coronary heart disease in Bangladesh?
Rahman, Muhammad A., Spurrier, Nicola, Mahmood, Mohammad A., Rahman, Mahmudur, Choudhury, Sohel Reza and Leeder, Stephen 2012. Is there any association between use of smokeless tobacco products and coronary heart disease in Bangladesh? PLoS ONE. 7 (1), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030584
Length of stay in hospital and all-cause readmission following elective total joint replacement in elderly men
Mnatzaganian, George, Ryan, Philip, Norman, Paul, Davidson, David and Hiller, Janet E. 2012. Length of stay in hospital and all-cause readmission following elective total joint replacement in elderly men. Orthopedic Research and Reviews. 4, pp. 43 - 51. https://doi.org/10.2147/ORR.S31668
Women and cardiovascular disease : At a social disadvantage?
Worrall-Carter, Linda, Edward, Karen-Leigh and Page, Karen Nicola 2012. Women and cardiovascular disease : At a social disadvantage? Collegian. 19 (1), pp. 33 - 37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2011.09.004
Use of routine hospital morbidity data together with weight and height of patients to predict in-hospital complications following total joint replacement
Mnatzaganian, George, Ryan, Philip, Norman, Paul, Davidson, David and Hiller, Janet 2012. Use of routine hospital morbidity data together with weight and height of patients to predict in-hospital complications following total joint replacement. BMC Health Services Research. 12 (1), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-12-380
Profiles of primary cardiovascular risk in STEMI: How do these differ between men and women?
Scruth, Elizabeth, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Page, Karen and Cheng, Eugene 2012. Profiles of primary cardiovascular risk in STEMI: How do these differ between men and women? Primary Care Cardiovascular Journal. 5 (4), pp. 176 - 180. https://doi.org/10.3132/pccj.2011.088
Factors associated with in-hospital mortality following ICU discharge : a comprehensive review
Elliott, Malcolm, Worrall-Carter, Linda and Page, Karen 2012. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality following ICU discharge : a comprehensive review. British Journal of Intensive Care. 22 (4), pp. 120 - 125.
Date Palm Sap Linked to Nipah Virus Outbreak in Bangladesh, 2008
Rahman, Muhammad Aziz, Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir, Sultana, Sharmin, Homaira, Nusrat, Khan, Salah, Rahman, Mahmudur, Gurley, Emily, Rollin, Pierre, Lo, Michael and Comer, James 2012. Date Palm Sap Linked to Nipah Virus Outbreak in Bangladesh, 2008. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 12 (1), pp. 65 - 72. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0656
Nurse-administered procedural sedation and analgesia in the cardiac catheter laboratory: An integrative review
Conway, Aaron W., Page, Karen, Rolley, John and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2011. Nurse-administered procedural sedation and analgesia in the cardiac catheter laboratory: An integrative review. International Journal of Nursing Studies (print version). 48 (8), pp. 1012 - 1023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.04.013
A prospective cohort study of geriatric syndromes among older medical patients admitted to acute care hospitals
Lakhan, Prabha, Jones, Mark, Wilson, Andrew, Courtney, Mary Denise, Hirdes, John and Gray, Leonard 2011. A prospective cohort study of geriatric syndromes among older medical patients admitted to acute care hospitals. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 59 (11), pp. 2001 - 2008. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03663.x
From novice to expert: Confidence and activity status determine heart failure self-care performance
Riegel, B., Lee, C. S., Albert, N., Lennie, T., Chung, M., Song, E., Bentley, B., Heo, S., Worrall-Carter, Linda and Moser, D K. 2011. From novice to expert: Confidence and activity status determine heart failure self-care performance. Nursing Research. 60 (2), pp. 132 - 138. https://doi.org/10.1097/NNR.0b013e31820978ec
Whose job is it? :Gender differences in perceived role in heart failure self-care
Dickson, V. V., Worrall-Carter, Linda, Kuhn, Lisa and Reigel, Barbara 2011. Whose job is it? :Gender differences in perceived role in heart failure self-care. Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness (print version). 3 (2), pp. 99 - 108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-9824.2011.01084.x
Registered Nurses' smoking behaviours and their attitudes to personal cessation
Berkelmans, A., Burton, D., Page, Karen and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2011. Registered Nurses' smoking behaviours and their attitudes to personal cessation. Journal of Advanced Nursing (print version). 67 (7), pp. 1580 - 1590. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05592.x
Evidence-based chronic heart-failure management programmes: Reality or myth?
Driscoll, A., Worrall-Carter, Linda, Hare, D., Davidson, P., Riegel, B., Tonkin, A. and Stewart, S. 2011. Evidence-based chronic heart-failure management programmes: Reality or myth? BMJ Quality and Safety (print version). 20 (1), pp. 31 - 37. https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2008.028035
Symptom variability, not severity, predicts rehospitalization and mortality in patients with heart failure
Moser, Debra, Frazier, Susan, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Biddle, Martha, Chung, Misook, Lee, Kyoung Suk and Lennie, Terry 2011. Symptom variability, not severity, predicts rehospitalization and mortality in patients with heart failure. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 10 (2), pp. 124 - 129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2010.05.006
Smoking, body weight, physical exercise, and risk of lower limb total joint replacement in a population-based cohort of men
Mnatzaganian, G., Ryan, P., Norman, P E., Davidson, D. C. and Hiller, Janet E. 2011. Smoking, body weight, physical exercise, and risk of lower limb total joint replacement in a population-based cohort of men. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 63 (8), pp. 2523 - 2530. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.30400
Development of an evidence-based scoring system (HF-IS) to assess the quality of heart failure programmes for patients postdischarge from hospital
Driscoll, Andrea, Tonkin, Andrew, Stewart, Andrew, Thompson, David R., Worrall-Carter, Linda, Reigel, Barbara, Hare, David L., Davidson, Patricia M. and Stewart, Simon 2011. Development of an evidence-based scoring system (HF-IS) to assess the quality of heart failure programmes for patients postdischarge from hospital. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 20 (21-22), pp. 3011 - 3019. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03687.x
Triaging women with acute coronary syndrome :A review of the literature
Kuhn, Lisa, Page, Karen, Davidson, Patricia M. and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2011. Triaging women with acute coronary syndrome :A review of the literature. Cardiovascular Nursing, The Journal of. 26 (5), pp. 395 - 407. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0b013e31820598f6
Systematic review of cardiovascular disease in women :Assessing the risk
Worrall-Carter, Linda, Ski, Chantal, Scruth, Elizabeth, Campbell, Michelle and Page, Karen Nicola 2011. Systematic review of cardiovascular disease in women :Assessing the risk. Nursing and Health Sciences. 13 (4), pp. 529 - 535. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2018.2011.00645.x
Readmission to intensive care: A qualitative analysis of nurses' perceptions and experiences
Elliott, Malcolm, Crookes, Patrick, Worrall-Carter, Linda and Page, Karen 2011. Readmission to intensive care: A qualitative analysis of nurses' perceptions and experiences. Heart & Lung: the journal of acute and critical care (print version). 40 (4), pp. 299 - 309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2010.04.006
A Novel Low-Cost Approach to Estimate the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in the Catchment Area of Three Hospitals in Bangladesh
Paul, Repon, Rahman, Mahmudur, Gurley, Emily, Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir, Diorditsa, Serguei, Hasan, Mainul, Banu, Sultana, Alamgir, ASM, Rahman, Muhammad Aziz and Sandhu, Hardeep 2011. A Novel Low-Cost Approach to Estimate the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in the Catchment Area of Three Hospitals in Bangladesh. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 85 (2), pp. 379 - 385. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0706
A systematic review of epidemiological studies on the association between smokeless tobacco use and coronary heart disease
Rahman, Muhammad Aziz, Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal, Spurrier, Nicola, Rahman, Mahmudur and Leeder, Stephen 2011. A systematic review of epidemiological studies on the association between smokeless tobacco use and coronary heart disease. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology. 3 (12), pp. 593 - 603. https://doi.org/10.5897/JPHE11.175
Symptom recognition in elders with heart failure
Riegel, Barbara, Dickson, Victoria, Cameron, Jan, Johnson, Jerry, Bunker, Stephen, Page, Karen and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2010. Symptom recognition in elders with heart failure. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 42 (1), pp. 92 - 100. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2010.01333.x
Self-Care Behaviours and Heart Failure: Does Experience with Symptoms Really Make a Difference?
Cameron, Janette, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Page, Karen and Stewart, Simon 2010. Self-Care Behaviours and Heart Failure: Does Experience with Symptoms Really Make a Difference? European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 9 (2), pp. 92 - 100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2009.10.004
The information and support needs of Faroese women hospitalised with an acute coronary syndrome
Askham, Jorun, Kuhn, Lisa, Frederiksen, Kirsten, Davidson, Patricia, Edward, Karen-Leigh and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2010. The information and support needs of Faroese women hospitalised with an acute coronary syndrome. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 19 (October), pp. 1352 - 1361. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03013.x
Does cognitive impairment predict poor self-care in patients with chronic heart failure?
Cameron, Janette, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Page, Karen, Riegel, Barbara, Lo, Sing Kai and Stewart, Simon 2010. Does cognitive impairment predict poor self-care in patients with chronic heart failure? European Journal of Heart Failure. 12 (5), pp. 508 - 515. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfq042
Theoretical considerations in reducing risk for cardiovascular diseases: Implications for nursing practice
Gholizadeh, Leila, Davidson, Patricia, Salamonson, Yenna and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2010. Theoretical considerations in reducing risk for cardiovascular diseases: Implications for nursing practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 19 (15-16), pp. 2137 - 2145. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03189.x
Gender-specific barriers and facilitators to heart failure self-care: A mixed methods study
Riegel, Barbara, Dickson, Victoria, Lisa, Kuhn,, Page, Karen and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2010. Gender-specific barriers and facilitators to heart failure self-care: A mixed methods study. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 47 (7), pp. 888 - 895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.12.011
Recovering from an acute cardiac event- the relationship between the depression and life satisfaction.
Page, Karen, Davidson, Patricia, Edward, Karen-Leigh, Allen, Josh, Cummins, Robert, Thompson, David and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2010. Recovering from an acute cardiac event- the relationship between the depression and life satisfaction. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 19 (June), pp. 736 - 743. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03106.x
Awareness and causal attributions of risk factors for heart disease among immigrant women living in Australia
Gholizadeh, Leila, Salamonson, Yenna, Worrall-Carter, Linda, DiGiacomo, Michelle and Davidson, Patricia M. 2009. Awareness and causal attributions of risk factors for heart disease among immigrant women living in Australia. Journal of Women's Health. 18 (9), pp. 1385 - 1393. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2008.0956
Gender differences in heart failure self-care: A multinational cross-sectional study
Lee, Christopher S., Reigel, Barbara, Driscoll, Andrea, Suwanno, Jom, Moser, Debra K., Lennie, Terry A., Dickson, Victoria V., Cameron, Janette and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2009. Gender differences in heart failure self-care: A multinational cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 46 (11), pp. 1485 - 1495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.04.004
Testing a model of patient characteristics, psychologic status, and cognitive function as predictors of self-care in persons with chronic heart failure
Cameron, Janette, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Riegel, Barbara, Lo, Sing Kai and Stewart, Simon 2009. Testing a model of patient characteristics, psychologic status, and cognitive function as predictors of self-care in persons with chronic heart failure. Heart & Lung: the journal of acute and critical care. 38 (5), pp. 410 - 418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2008.11.004
Evidence-based chronic heart failure management programs: Reality or myth?
Driscoll, Andrea, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Hare, David, Davidson, Patricia, Riegel, Barbara, Tonkin, Andrew and Stewart, Simon 2009. Evidence-based chronic heart failure management programs: Reality or myth? BMJ Quality and Safety. 18 (6), pp. 450 - 455. https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2008.028035
Measuring self-care in chronic heart failure: A review of the psychometric properties of clinical instruments
Cameron, Janette, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Driscoll, Andrea and Stewart, Simon 2009. Measuring self-care in chronic heart failure: A review of the psychometric properties of clinical instruments. The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 24 (6), pp. E10 - E22. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0b013e3181b5660f
Opting in and opting out: A grounded theory of nursing's contribution to inpatient rehabilitation
Pryor, Julie, Walker, Annette, O'Connell, Beverley and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2009. Opting in and opting out: A grounded theory of nursing's contribution to inpatient rehabilitation. Clinical Rehabilitation. 23 (12), pp. 1124 - 1135. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215509343233
Relationship of heart failure patients' knowledge, perceived barriers, and attitudes regarding low-sodium diet recommendations to adherence
Lennie, Terry, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Hammash, M., Odom-Forren, J., Roser, L. P., Smith, C. S., Trupp, T., Chung, Misook and Moser, Debra 2008. Relationship of heart failure patients' knowledge, perceived barriers, and attitudes regarding low-sodium diet recommendations to adherence. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing. 23 (1), pp. 6 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7117.2008.tb00525.x
Improving depression and anxiety screening of patients with heart disease: implementing a multidisciplinary Clinical Pathway
Rahman, Aziz and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2008. Improving depression and anxiety screening of patients with heart disease: implementing a multidisciplinary Clinical Pathway.
Effect of infections on 30-day mortality among critically ill patients hospitalized in and out of the intensive care unit
Mnatzaganian, George, Sprung, Charles L., Zitser-Gurevich, Yana, Galai, Noya, Goldschmidt, Nethanel, Levi, Leon, Bar-Lavi, Yaron, Zveibil, Fabio, Salz, Inbal Weiss, Ekka-Zohar, Anat and Simchen, Elisheva 2008. Effect of infections on 30-day mortality among critically ill patients hospitalized in and out of the intensive care unit. Critical Care Medicine. 36 (4), pp. 1097 - 1104. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0B013E3181659610
The impact of an ICU liaison nurse service on patient outcomes
Elliott, Suzanne, Ernest, David, Doric, Andrea, Page, Karen, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Thalib, Lukman and Chaboyer, Wendy 2008. The impact of an ICU liaison nurse service on patient outcomes. Critical Care and Resuscitation. 10 (4), pp. 296 - 300.
Smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption: Possible risk factors for coronary heart disease among young patients attending a tertiary care cardiac hospital in bangladesh
Rahman, Aziz and Zaman, Mostafa 2008. Smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption: Possible risk factors for coronary heart disease among young patients attending a tertiary care cardiac hospital in bangladesh. Public Health. 122 (12), pp. 1331 - 1338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2008.05.015
Ethical dilemmas of a large national multi-centre study in Australia: Time for some consistency
Driscoll, Andrea, Currey, Judy, Worrall-Carter, Linda and Stewart, Simon 2008. Ethical dilemmas of a large national multi-centre study in Australia: Time for some consistency. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 17 (16), pp. 2212 - 2220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02219.x
Returning to work: Exploring the experiences of women with acute coronary syndromes
Parry, A., Worrall-Carter, Linda, Page, Karen, Kuhn, Lisa, DiGiacomo, Michelle and Davidson, Patricia 2007. Returning to work: Exploring the experiences of women with acute coronary syndromes. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing. 2 (6), pp. 292 - 301.
Depression, anxiety and stress in women following acute coronary syndrome: Implications for secondary prevention
DiGiacomo, Michelle, Davidson, Patricia, Vanderpluym, A., Snell, R. and Worrall-Carter, Linda 2007. Depression, anxiety and stress in women following acute coronary syndrome: Implications for secondary prevention. Australian Critical Care. 20 (2), pp. 69 - 76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2007.03.002
Extent of heart failure self-care as an endpoint to patient education: A review of the literature
Cameron, Jan, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Driscoll, Andrea, New, G. and Stewart, Simon 2007. Extent of heart failure self-care as an endpoint to patient education: A review of the literature. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing. 2 (4), pp. 188 - 197.
Gender differences in adherence to the sodium-restricted diet in patients with heart failure
Chung, Misook, Moser, Debra, Lennie, Terry, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Bentley, B., Trupp, T. and Armentano, D. 2006. Gender differences in adherence to the sodium-restricted diet in patients with heart failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure. 12 (8), pp. 628 - 634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2006.07.007
Assessment of cognitive function in heart failure patients
Wolfe, R, Worrall-Carter, Linda, Foister, K., Keks, N. and Howe, V. 2006. Assessment of cognitive function in heart failure patients. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 5 (2), pp. 158 - 164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2005.10.005
Heterogeneity of heart failure management programs in Australia
Driscoll, Andrea, Worrall-Carter, Linda, McLennan, Skye, Dawson, Anna, O'Reilly, J. and Stewart, Simon 2006. Heterogeneity of heart failure management programs in Australia. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 5 (1), pp. 75 - 82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2005.08.001
Rationale and design of the national benchmarking and evidence-based national clinical guidelines for chronic heart failure management programs study
Driscoll, Andrea, Worrall-Carter, Linda and Stewart, Simon 2006. Rationale and design of the national benchmarking and evidence-based national clinical guidelines for chronic heart failure management programs study. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 21 (4), pp. 276 - 282. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005082-200607000-00007
The experiences and adjustments of women following their first acute myocardial infarction
Worrall-Carter, Linda, Jones, T. and Driscoll, Andrea 2005. The experiences and adjustments of women following their first acute myocardial infarction. Contemporary Nurse. 19 (February), pp. 211 - 221.
Psychosocial issues facilitating recovery post-CABG surgery
Theobald, K, Worrall-Carter, Linda and McMurray, Anne 2005. Psychosocial issues facilitating recovery post-CABG surgery. Australian Critical Care. 18 (2), pp. 76 - 85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1036-7314(05)80006-2
A historical review of the nurse practitioner role in Australia
Driscoll, Andrea, Worrall-Carter, Linda, O'Reilly, J. and Stewart, Simon 2005. A historical review of the nurse practitioner role in Australia. Clinical Excellence for Nurse Practitioners. 9 (3), pp. 141 - 152.
Nurse academics meeting the challenges of scholarship and research
Worrall-Carter, Linda and Snell, R. 2003. Nurse academics meeting the challenges of scholarship and research. Contemporary Nurse. 16 (February), pp. 40 - 50.