Safety in numbers: Does perceived safety mediate associations between the neighborhood social environment and physical activity among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods?

Journal article


Timperio, Anna, Veitch, Jenny and Carver, Alison 2015. Safety in numbers: Does perceived safety mediate associations between the neighborhood social environment and physical activity among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods? Preventive Medicine. 74, pp. 49 - 54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.02.012
AuthorsTimperio, Anna, Veitch, Jenny and Carver, Alison
Abstract

Objective The aim of this study is to examine associations between the neighborhood social environment and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA)1 and walking among women, and whether these associations are mediated by perceived personal safety. Methods Women (n = 3784) living in disadvantaged urban and rural neighborhoods within Victoria, Australia completed a self-administered survey on five social environment variables (neighborhood crime, neighborhood violence, seeing others walking and exercising in the neighborhood, social trust/cohesion), perceived personal safety, and their physical activity in 2007/8. Linear regression analyses examined associations between social environment variables and LTPA and walking. Potential mediating pathways were assessed using the product-of-coefficients test. Moderated mediation by urban/rural residence was examined. Results Each social environment variable was positively associated with engaging in at least 150 min/week of LTPA (OR = 1.16 to 1.56). Only two social environment variables, seeing others walking (OR = 1.45) and exercising (OR = 1.31), were associated with ≥ 150 min/week of walking. Perceived personal safety mediated all associations. Stronger mediation was found in urban areas for crime, violence and social trust/cohesion. Conclusion The neighborhood social environment is an important influence on physical activity among women living in disadvantaged areas. Feelings of personal safety should not be included in composite or aggregate scores relating to the social environment.

KeywordsPhysical activity; Walking; Environment; Women; Safety; Correlates; Mediation; Social; Neighborhood; Disadvantage
Year2015
JournalPreventive Medicine
Journal citation74, pp. 49 - 54
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
ISSN0091-7435
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.02.012
Scopus EID2-s2.0-84924705931
Page range49 - 54
Research GroupInstitute for Health and Ageing
Place of publicationUnited States
Permalink -

https://acuresearchbank.acu.edu.au/item/86736/safety-in-numbers-does-perceived-safety-mediate-associations-between-the-neighborhood-social-environment-and-physical-activity-among-women-living-in-disadvantaged-neighborhoods

Restricted files

Publisher's version

  • 0
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Is greenery associated with mental health among residents of aged care facilities? A systematic search and narrative review
Carver, Alison, Lorenzon, Alanna, Veitch, Jenny, MacLeod, Ashley and Sugiyama, Takemi 2020. Is greenery associated with mental health among residents of aged care facilities? A systematic search and narrative review. Aging and Mental Health. 24 (1), pp. 1 - 7. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2018.1516193
Individual, social and neighbourhood correlates of cycling among children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods
Bell, Lisa, Timperio, Anna, Veitch, Jenny and Carver, Alison 2020. Individual, social and neighbourhood correlates of cycling among children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 23 (2), pp. 157 - 163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.08.010
Is greenery associated with mental health among residents of aged care facilities? A systematic search and narrative review
Carver, Alison, Lorenzon, Alanna, Veitch, Jenny, MacLeod, Ashley and Sugiyama, Takemi 2020. Is greenery associated with mental health among residents of aged care facilities? A systematic search and narrative review. Aging and Mental Health. 24 (1), pp. 1 - 7. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2018.1516193
Urban densification and 12-Year changes in cardiovascular risk markers
Chandrabose, Manoj, Owen, Neville, Giles-Corti, Billie, Turrell, Gavin, Carver, Alison and Sugiyama, Takemi 2019. Urban densification and 12-Year changes in cardiovascular risk markers. Journal of the American Heart Association. 8 (15), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.013199
The impact of a park refurbishment in a low socioeconomic area on physical activity: A cost-effectiveness study
Lal, Anita, Moodie, Marj, Abbott, Gavin, Carver, Alison, Salmon, Jo, Giles-Corti, Billie, TImperio, Anna and Veitch, Jenny 2019. The impact of a park refurbishment in a low socioeconomic area on physical activity: A cost-effectiveness study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 16 (1), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-019-0786-5
Are neigborhood environmental attributes more important for older than for younger adults' walking? Testing effect modification by age
Cole, Rachel, Koohsari, Javad, Carver, Alison, Owen, Neville and Sugiyama, Takemi 2019. Are neigborhood environmental attributes more important for older than for younger adults' walking? Testing effect modification by age. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 27 (3), pp. 354 - 359. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2018-0009
Physical activity benefits from taking your dog to the park
Veitch, Jenny, Christian, Hayley, Carver, Alison and Salmon, Jo 2019. Physical activity benefits from taking your dog to the park. Landscape and Urban Planning. 185, pp. 173 - 179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2019.02.013
Neighbourhood built environment and physical function among mid-to-older aged adults: A systematic review
Rachele, Jerome N., Sugiyama, Takemi, Davies, Sasha, Loh, Venurs H. Y., Turrell, Gavin, Carver, Alison and Cerin, Ester 2019. Neighbourhood built environment and physical function among mid-to-older aged adults: A systematic review. Health and Place. 58, pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.05.015
How are the built environment and household travel characteristics associated with children's active transport in Melbourne, Australia?
Carver, Alison, Barr, Alison, Singh, A., Badland, Hannah, Mavoa, Suzanne and Bentley, Rebecca 2019. How are the built environment and household travel characteristics associated with children's active transport in Melbourne, Australia? Journal of Transport and Health. 12, pp. 115 - 129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2019.01.003
Predictors of healthier and more sustainable school travel mode profiles among Hong Kong adolescents
Barnett, Anthony, Akram, Muhammad, Sit, Cindy Hui-Ping, Mellecker, Robin, Carver, Alison and Cerin, Ester 2019. Predictors of healthier and more sustainable school travel mode profiles among Hong Kong adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 16 (1), pp. 1 - 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-019-0807-4
Who goes to metropolitan parks? A latent class analysis approach to understanding park visitation
Veitch, Jenny, Wang, Wei C., Salmon, Jo, Carver, Alison, Giles-Corti, Billie and Timperio, Anna 2018. Who goes to metropolitan parks? A latent class analysis approach to understanding park visitation. Leisure Sciences. 40 (5), pp. 343 - 355. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400.2017.1325798
Advantages of public green spaces in enhancing population health
Sugiyama, Takemi, Carver, Alison, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad and Veitch, Jenny 2018. Advantages of public green spaces in enhancing population health. Landscape and Urban Planning. 178, pp. 12 - 17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.05.019
Evaluation of the impact of a personalized postdonation short messaging service on the retention of whole blood donors
Gemelli, Carley N., Carver, Alison, Garn, Alana, Wright, Stephen T. and Davidson, Tanya E. 2018. Evaluation of the impact of a personalized postdonation short messaging service on the retention of whole blood donors. Transfusion. 58 (3), pp. 701 - 709. https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.14463
Evaluation of the impact of a personalised post-donation SMS on the retention of whole blood donors
Gemelli, Carley N., Carver, Alison, Garn, Alana, Wright, Stephen T. and Davison, Tanya E. 2018. Evaluation of the impact of a personalised post-donation SMS on the retention of whole blood donors. Transfusion. 58 (3), pp. 701 - 709. https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.14463
What motivates men to donate blood? A systematic review of the evidence
Carver, A., Chell, K., Davidson, T. E. and Masser, B. M. 2018. What motivates men to donate blood? A systematic review of the evidence. Vox Sanguinis. https://doi.org/10.1111/vox.12625
The REVAMP natural experiment study: the impact of a play-scape installation on park visitation and park-based physical activity
Veitch, Jenny, Salmon, J., Crawford, David, Abbott, G., Giles-Corti, Billie, Carver, Alison and Timperio, Anna 2018. The REVAMP natural experiment study: the impact of a play-scape installation on park visitation and park-based physical activity. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 15 (1), pp. 1 - 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0625-5
A cross-sectional investigation of the importance of park features for promoting regular physical activity in parks
Costigan, Sarah A., Veitch, Jenny, Crawford, David, Carver, Alison and Timperio, Anna 2017. A cross-sectional investigation of the importance of park features for promoting regular physical activity in parks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (11), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111335
Parental perceptions of risk and children's physical activity
Carver, Alison 2017. Parental perceptions of risk and children's physical activity. in: C. Freeman, P. Tranter and T. Skelton (ed.) Risk, protection, provision and policy Singapore: Springer. pp. 241 - 259
What motivates men to donate blood? A systematic review of the evidence
Carver, Alison, Chell, Kathleen, Davison, Tanya E. and Masser, Barbara M. 2017. What motivates men to donate blood? A systematic review of the evidence. Vox Sanguinis.
Area-level socio-economic disparities in active and sedentary transport: Investigating the role of population density in Australia
Sugiyama, Takemi, Cole, Rachel, Thompson, Russell, Sahlqvist, Shannon, de Sá, Thiago Hérick, Carver, Alison and Astell-Burt, Thomas 2017. Area-level socio-economic disparities in active and sedentary transport: Investigating the role of population density in Australia. Journal of Transport and Health. 6, pp. 282 - 288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2017.04.009
Insights into children's independent mobility for transportation cycling - Which socio-ecological factors matter?
Ghekiere, Ariane, Deforche, Benedicte, Carver, Alison, Mertens, Lieze, de Geus, Bas, Clarys, Peter, Cardon, Greet, De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Van Cauwenberg, Jelle 2017. Insights into children's independent mobility for transportation cycling - Which socio-ecological factors matter? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20 (3), pp. 267 - 272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.08.002
Parental perceptions of risk and children's physical activity
Carver, Alison 2017. Parental perceptions of risk and children's physical activity. in: C. Freeman, P. Tranter and T. Skelton (ed.) Risk, protection, provision and policy Singapore: Springer Singapore. pp. 241 - 259
Challenges in conducting natural experiments in parks - lessons from the REVAMP study
Veitch, Jenny, Salmon, Jo, Giles-Corti, Billie, Crawford, David, Dullaghan, Kate, Carver, Alison and Timperio, Anna 2017. Challenges in conducting natural experiments in parks - lessons from the REVAMP study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 14 (1), pp. 1 - 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0460-0
What predicts children's active transport and independent mobility in disadvantaged neighborhoods?
Veitch, Jenny, Carver, Alison, Salmon, J., Abbott, G., Ball, Kylie, Crawford, David, Cleland, Verity and Timperio, Anna 2017. What predicts children's active transport and independent mobility in disadvantaged neighborhoods? Health and Place. 44, pp. 103 - 109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.003
Children's active transport and independent mobility in the urban environment
Carver, Alison 2017. Children's active transport and independent mobility in the urban environment. in: C. R. Ergler, R. Kearns and K. Witten (ed.) Children's Health and Wellbeing in Urban Environments United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. 32 - 44
Does parental accompaniment when walking or cycling moderate the association between physical neighbourhood environment and active transport among 10-12 year olds?
Ghekiere, Ariane, Carver, Alison, Veitch, Jenny, Salmon, Jo, Deforche, Benedicte and Timperio, Anna 2016. Does parental accompaniment when walking or cycling moderate the association between physical neighbourhood environment and active transport among 10-12 year olds? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 19 (2), pp. 149 - 153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.01.003
Australian children's independent mobility levels: secondary analyses of cross-sectional data between 1991 and 2012
Schoeppe, Stephanie, Tranter, Paul, Duncan, Mitch J., Curtis, Carey, Carver, Alison and Malone, Karen 2016. Australian children's independent mobility levels: secondary analyses of cross-sectional data between 1991 and 2012. Children's Geographies. 14 (4), pp. 408 - 421. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2015.1082083
Psychosocial factors associated with children's cycling for transport: A cross-sectional moderation study
Ghekiere, Ariane, Cauwenberg, Jelle Van, Carver, Alison, Mertens, Lieze, de Geus, Bas, Clarys, Peter, Cardon, Greet, De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Deforche, Benedicte 2016. Psychosocial factors associated with children's cycling for transport: A cross-sectional moderation study. Preventive Medicine. 86, pp. 141 - 146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.03.001
Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and health and development in children and adolescents: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Cliff, Dylan P., Hesketh, Kylie D., Vella, S. A., Hinkley, T., Tsiros, Margarita D., Ridgers, Nicola D., Carver, Alison, Veitch, Jenny, Parrish, A.-M., Hardy, L. L., Plotnikoff, Ron C., Okely, A. D., Salmon, Jo and Lubans, David R. 2016. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and health and development in children and adolescents: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews. 17 (4), pp. 330 - 344. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12371
Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and health and development in children and adolescents: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Cliff, Dylan, Hesketh, Kylie, Vella, S. A., Hinkley, T., Tsiros, Margarita D., Ridgers, Nicola D., Carver, Alison, Veitch, Jenny, Parrish, A. M., Hardy, L. L., Plotnikoff, Ron C., Okely, A. D., Salmon, Jo and Lubans, David 2016. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and health and development in children and adolescents: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews. 17 (4), pp. 330 - 344. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12371
Australian children's independent mobility levels: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data between 1991 and 2012
Schoeppe, Stephanie, Tranter, Paul, Duncan, Mitch J., Curtis, Carey, Carver, Alison and Malone, Karen 2016. Australian children's independent mobility levels: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data between 1991 and 2012. Children's Geographies. 14 (4), pp. 408 - 421. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2015.1082083
Pyschosocial factors associated with children's cycling for transport: A cross-sectional moderation study
Ghekiere, Ariane, Van Cauwenberg, Jelle, Carver, Alison, Mertens, Lieze, de Geus, Bas, Clarys, Peter, Cardon, Greet, De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Deforche, Benedicte 2016. Pyschosocial factors associated with children's cycling for transport: A cross-sectional moderation study. Preventive Medicine. 86, pp. 141 - 146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.03.001
Does parental accompaniment when walking or cycling moderate the association between physical neighbourhood environment and active transport among 10-12 year olds?
Ghekiere, Ariane, Carver, Alison, Veitch, Jenny, Salmon, Jo, Deforche, Benedicte and Timperio, Anna 2016. Does parental accompaniment when walking or cycling moderate the association between physical neighbourhood environment and active transport among 10-12 year olds? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 19 (2), pp. 149 - 153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.01.003
Addressing the social determinants of inequities in physical activity and sedentary behaviours
Ball, Kylie, Carver, Alison, Downing, Katherine, Jackson, Michelle and O'Rourke, Kerryn 2015. Addressing the social determinants of inequities in physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Health Promotion International. 30 (S2), pp. ii8 - ii19. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dav022
Addressing the social determinants of inequities in physical activity and sedentary behaviours
Ball, Kylie, Carver, Alison, Downing, Katherine, Jackson, Michelle and O'Rourke, Kerryn 2015. Addressing the social determinants of inequities in physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Health Promotion International. 30, pp. ii8 - ii19. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dav022
How active are people in metropolitan parks? An observational study of park visitation in Australia
Veitch, Jenny, Carver, Alison, Abbott, Gavin, Giles-Corti, Billie, Timperio, Anna and Salmon, Jo 2015. How active are people in metropolitan parks? An observational study of park visitation in Australia. BMC Public Health. 15 (610), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1960-6
Bicycles gathering dust rather than raising dust - Prevalence and predictors of cycling among Australian schoolchildren
Carver, Alison, Timperio, Anna F. and Crawford, David A. 2015. Bicycles gathering dust rather than raising dust - Prevalence and predictors of cycling among Australian schoolchildren. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 18 (5), pp. 540 - 544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.07.004
Safety in numbers: Does perceived safety mediate associations between the neighborhood social environment and physical activity among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods?
Timperio, Anna, Veitch, Jenny and Carver, Alison 2015. Safety in numbers: Does perceived safety mediate associations between the neighborhood social environment and physical activity among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods? Preventive Medicine. 74, pp. 49 - 54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.02.012
How active are people in metropolitan parks? An observational study of park visitation in Australia
Veitch, Jenny, Carver, Alison, Abbott, Gavin, Giles-Corti, Billie, Timperio, Anna and Salmon, Jo 2015. How active are people in metropolitan parks? An observational study of park visitation in Australia. BMC Public Health. 15 (610), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1960-6
Bicycles gathering dust rather than raising dust - Prevalence and predictors of cycling among Australian schoolchildren
Carver, Alison, Timperio, Anna F. and Crawford, David A. 2015. Bicycles gathering dust rather than raising dust - Prevalence and predictors of cycling among Australian schoolchildren. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 18 (5), pp. 540 - 544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.07.004
Exploring associations between parental and peer variables, personal variables and physical activity among adolescents: A mediation analysis
Verloigne, Maïté, Veitch, Jenny, Carver, Alison, Salmon, Jo, Cardon, Greet, De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Timperio, Anna 2014. Exploring associations between parental and peer variables, personal variables and physical activity among adolescents: A mediation analysis. BMC Public Health. 14 (966), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-966
Are independent mobility and territorial range associated with park visitation among youth?
Veitch, Jenny, Carver, Alison, Hume, Clare, Crawford, David, Timperio, Anna, Ball, Kylie and Salmon, Jo 2014. Are independent mobility and territorial range associated with park visitation among youth? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 11 (1), pp. 1 - 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-11-73
Independent mobility on the journey to school: A joint cross-sectional and prospective exploration of social and physical environmental influences
Carver, Alison, Panter, Jenna R., Jones, Andrew P. and Van Sluijs, Esther 2014. Independent mobility on the journey to school: A joint cross-sectional and prospective exploration of social and physical environmental influences. Journal of Transport and Health. 1 (1), pp. 25 - 32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2013.12.003
Exploring associations between parental and peer variables, personal variables and physical activity among adolescents: A mediation analysis
Verloigne, Maïté, Veitch, Jenny, Carver, Alison, Salmon, Jo, Cardon, Greet, De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Timperio, Anna 2014. Exploring associations between parental and peer variables, personal variables and physical activity among adolescents: A mediation analysis. BMC Public Health. 14 (1), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-966
Active transport, independent mobility and territorial range among children residing in disadvantaged areas
Carver, Alison, Veitch, Jenny, Sahlqvist, Shannon, Crawford, David and Hume, Clare 2014. Active transport, independent mobility and territorial range among children residing in disadvantaged areas. Journal of Transport and Health. 1 (4), pp. 267 - 273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2014.01.004
A natural experiment to examine the impact of park renewal on park-use and park-based physical activity in a disadvantaged neighbourhood: The REVAMP study methods
Veitch, Jenny, Salmon, Jo, Carver, Alison, Timperio, Anna, Crawford, David, Fletcher, Elly and Giles-Corti, Billie 2014. A natural experiment to examine the impact of park renewal on park-use and park-based physical activity in a disadvantaged neighbourhood: The REVAMP study methods. BMC Public Health. 14 (600), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-600
Effective recruitment and retention strategies in community health programs
McCann, Jennifer, Ridgers, Nicola D., Carver, Alison, Thornton, Lukar E. and Teychenne, Megan 2013. Effective recruitment and retention strategies in community health programs. Health Promotion Journal of Australia. 24 (2), pp. 104 - 110. https://doi.org/10.1071/HE13042
Parental chauffeurs: What drives their transport choice?
Carver, Alison, Timperio, Anna and Crawford, David 2013. Parental chauffeurs: What drives their transport choice? Journal of Transport Geography. 26, pp. 72 - 77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.08.017
A comparison study of children's independent mobility in England and Australia
Carver, Alison, Watson, Ben, Shaw, Ben and Hillman, Mayer 2013. A comparison study of children's independent mobility in England and Australia. Children's Geographies. 11 (4), pp. 461 - 475. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2013.812303
Maternal Misconceptions of Weight Status among Nepean Adolescents
Shrewsbury, Vanessa A., Garnett, S. P., Campbell, Karen, Carver, Alison, Torvaldsen, Siranda, Steinbeck, Katharine S., Cowell, Chris T. and Baur, Louise A. 2012. Maternal Misconceptions of Weight Status among Nepean Adolescents. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 112 (12), pp. 2007 - 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2012.08.024
How does perceived risk mediate associations between perceived safety and parental restriction of adolescents' physical activity in their neighborhood?
Carver, Alison, Timperio, Anna, Hesketh, Kylie and Crawford, David 2012. How does perceived risk mediate associations between perceived safety and parental restriction of adolescents' physical activity in their neighborhood? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 9 (1), pp. 1 - 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-57
Young and free? A study of independent mobility among urban and rural dwelling Australian children
Carver, Alison, Timperio, Anna F. and Crawford, David A. 2012. Young and free? A study of independent mobility among urban and rural dwelling Australian children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 15 (6), pp. 505 - 510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.03.005
How is active transport associated with children's and adolescents' physical activity over time?
Carver, Alison, Timperio, Anna F., Hesketh, Kylie D., Ridgers, Nicola D., Salmon, Jo L. and Crawford, David A. 2011. How is active transport associated with children's and adolescents' physical activity over time? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 8 (126), p. 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-126