Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season

Journal article


Cormack, Stuart John, Newton, Robert U., McGuigan, Michael R. and Cormie, Prue. (2008) Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(4), pp. 439 - 453. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.4.439
AuthorsCormack, Stuart John, Newton, Robert U., McGuigan, Michael R. and Cormie, Prue
Abstract

Purpose: To examine variations in neuromuscular and hormonal status and their relationship to performance throughout a season of elite Australian Rules Football (ARF). Methods: Fifteen elite ARF players performed a single jump (CMJ1) and 5 repeated countermovement jumps (CMJ5), and provided saliva samples for the analysis of cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) before the season commenced (Pre) and during the 22-match season. Magnitudes of effects were reported with the effect size (ES) statistic. Correlations were performed to analyze relationships between assessment variables and match time, training load, and performance. Results: CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time was substantially reduced on 60% of measurement occasions. Magnitudes of change compared with Pre ranged from 1.0 ± 7.4% (ES 0.04 ± 0.29) to −17.1 ± 21.8% (ES −0.77 ± 0.81). Cortisol was substantially lower (up to −40 ± 14.1%, ES of −2.17 ± 0.56) than Pre in all but one comparison. Testosterone response was varied, whereas T:C increased substantially on 70% of occasions, with increases to 92.7 ± 27.8% (ES 2.03 ± 0.76). CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time (r = .24 ± 0.13) and C displayed (r = −0.16 ± 0.1) small correlations with performance. Conclusion: The response of CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time suggests periods of neuromuscular fatigue. Change in T:C indicates subjects were unlikely to have been in a catabolic state during the season. Increase in C compared with Pre had a small negative correlation with performance. Both CMJ1Flight time:Contraction time and C may be useful variables for monitoring responses to training and competition in elite ARF athletes.

Keywordsneuromuscular fatigue; testosterone; cortisol; team sport; monitoring
Year2008
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Journal citation3 (4), pp. 439 - 453
PublisherHuman Kinetics Publishers Inc.
ISSN1555-0265
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.4.439
Page range439 - 453
Research GroupSports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies (SPRINT) Research Centre
Place of publicationUnited States of America
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Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron and Aughey, Robert. (2012) International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level conterparts. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 26(4), pp. 947 - 952. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822e5913
Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation?
Newton, Robert U., Taaffe, Dennis R., Spry, Nigel A., Cormie, Prue, Chambers, Suzanne K., Gardiner, Robert Alexander, Shum, David H. K., Joseph, David and Galvao, Daniel A.. (2012) Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation? BMC Cancer. 12(432), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-432
GPS Analysis of an International Field Hockey Tournament
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron and Aughey, Robert. (2012) GPS Analysis of an International Field Hockey Tournament. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 7(3), pp. 224 - 231. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.7.3.224
Changes in strength over a 2-year period in professional Rugby Union players
Appleby, Brendyn, Newton, Robert U. and Cormie, Prue. (2012) Changes in strength over a 2-year period in professional Rugby Union players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 26(9), pp. 2538 - 2546. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823f8b86
Is "train as you play" the way to go?
Gabbett, Tim and Cormack, Stuart. (2012) Is "train as you play" the way to go? 5th Exercise and Sports Science Australia Conference. pp. 41 - 42
The relationship between isometric force-time curve characteristics and club head speed in recreational golfers
Leary, Brian K., Statler, Jason, Hopkins, Britton, Fitzwater, Rachael, Kesling, Tucker, Lyon, Jacob, Phillips, Brett, Bryner, Randell W., Cormie, Prue and Haff, Gregory G.. (2012) The relationship between isometric force-time curve characteristics and club head speed in recreational golfers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 26(10), pp. 2685 - 2697. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31826791bf
Influence of muscle-tendon unit structure on rate of force development during the squat, countermovement, and drop jumps
Earp, Jacob E., Kraemer, William J., Cormie, Prue, Volek, Jeffery S., Maresh, Carl M., Joseph, Michael and Newton, Robert U.. (2011) Influence of muscle-tendon unit structure on rate of force development during the squat, countermovement, and drop jumps. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 25(2), pp. 340 - 347. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182052d78
Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1 - Biological basis of maximal power production
Cormie, Prue, McGuigan, Michael R. and Newton, Robert U.. (2011) Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1 - Biological basis of maximal power production. Sports Medicine. 41(1), pp. 17 - 38. https://doi.org/10.2165/11537690-000000000-00000
Efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a randomized controlled trial
Galvao, Daniel, Taaffe, D R, Cormie, P, Spry, Nigel, Chambers, Suzanne, Peddle-McIntyre, C, Baker, Michael, Denham, James, Joseph, David and Groom, Geoff. (2011) Efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Cancer. 11(13), pp. 517 - 523. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-517
Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 2 training considerations for improving maximal power production
Cormie, Prue, McGuigan, Michael R. and Newton, Robert U.. (2011) Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 2 training considerations for improving maximal power production. Sports Medicine. 41(2), pp. 125 - 146. https://doi.org/10.2165/11538500-000000000-00000
The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football :A mediation approach
Mooney, Mitchell, O'Brien, Brendan, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Berry, Jason and Young, Warren. (2011) The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football :A mediation approach. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 14(5), pp. 447 - 452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.03.010
Which jump variables should be used to assess explosive leg muscle function?
Young, Warren, Cormack, Stuart and Crichton, Michael. (2011) Which jump variables should be used to assess explosive leg muscle function? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 6(1), pp. 51 - 57. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.6.1.51
A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance
Tofari, Paul J., McLean, Blake D., Kemp, Justin and Cormack, Stuart. (2011) A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 14(1), pp. 62 - 68.
Influence of strength on magnitude and mechanisms of adaptation to power training
Cormie, Prue, McGuigan, Michael and Newton, Robert U.. (2010) Influence of strength on magnitude and mechanisms of adaptation to power training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 42(8), pp. 1566 - 1581. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cf818d
Changes in the eccentric phase contribute to improved stretch-shorten cycle performance after training
Cormie, Prue, McGuigan, Michael and Newton, Robert U.. (2010) Changes in the eccentric phase contribute to improved stretch-shorten cycle performance after training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 42(9), pp. 1731 - 1744. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d392e8
The Validity and Reliability of GPS Units for Measuring Distance in Team Sport Specific Running Patterns
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Boyd, Luke and Aughey, Robert. (2010) The Validity and Reliability of GPS Units for Measuring Distance in Team Sport Specific Running Patterns. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(3), pp. 328 - 341. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.3.328
Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Boyd, Luke and Aughey, Robert. (2010) Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(4), pp. 565 - 569. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.4.565
Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training
Cormie, Prue, McGuigan, Michael and Newton, Robert U.. (2010) Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 42(8), pp. 1582 - 1598. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d2013a
Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players
McLean, Blake, Coutts, Aaron, Kelly, Vincent, McGuigan, Michael and Cormack, Stuart. (2010) Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(3), pp. 367 - 383. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.3.367
Movement pattern comparisons in elite (AFL) and sub-elite (WAFL) Australian football games using GPS
Brewer, Cameron, Dawson, Brian, Heasman, Jarryd, Stewart, Glenn and Cormack, Stuart. (2010) Movement pattern comparisons in elite (AFL) and sub-elite (WAFL) Australian football games using GPS. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 13(6), pp. 618 - 623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2010.01.005
Muscle deoxygenation during repeated sprint running: Effect of active vs. Passive recovery
Buchheit, M., Cormie, Prue, Abbiss, Chris R., Ahmaidi, S., Nosaka, K and Laursen, P B.. (2009) Muscle deoxygenation during repeated sprint running: Effect of active vs. Passive recovery. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 30(6), pp. 418 - 425. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1105933
Power-time, force-time, and velocity-time curve analysis of the countermovement jump: Impact of training
Cormie, Prue, McBride, Jeffrey M. and McCaulley, Grant O.. (2009) Power-time, force-time, and velocity-time curve analysis of the countermovement jump: Impact of training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(1), pp. 177 - 186. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181889324
Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses to hypertrophy, strength and power type resistane exercise
McCaulley, Grant O., McBride, Jeffrey M., Cormie, Prue, Hudson, Matthew B., Nuzzo, James L., Quindry, John C. and Triplett, N. Travis. (2009) Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses to hypertrophy, strength and power type resistane exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 105(5), pp. 695 - 704. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0951-z
Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players
McGuigan, Michael, Cormack, Stuart and Newton, Robert U.. (2009) Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(1), pp. 26 - 32. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818753ca
Comparison of methods to quantify volume during resistance exercise
McBride, Jeffrey M., McCaulley, Grant O., Cormie, Prue, Nuzzo, James L., Cavill, Michael J. and Triplett, N. Travis. (2009) Comparison of methods to quantify volume during resistance exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(1), pp. 106 - 110. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818efdfe
Does an optimal load exist for power training?
Cormie, Prue and Flanagan, Sean P.. (2008) Does an optimal load exist for power training? Strength and Conditioning Journal. 30(2), pp. 67 - 69. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0b013e31816a8776
Trunk muscle activity during stability ball and free weight exercises
Nuzzo, James L., McCaulley, Grant O., Cormie, Prue, Cavill, Michael J. and McBride, Jeffrey M.. (2008) Trunk muscle activity during stability ball and free weight exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(1), pp. 95 - 102. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31815ef8cd
Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players to an Australian rules football match
Cormack, Stuart, Newton, Robert U. and McGuigan, Michael. (2008) Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players to an Australian rules football match. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(3), pp. 359 - 374. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.3.359
Influence of preactivity and eccentric muscle activity on concentric performance during vertical jumping
McBride, Jeffrey M., McCaulley, Grant O. and Cormie, Prue. (2008) Influence of preactivity and eccentric muscle activity on concentric performance during vertical jumping. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(3), pp. 750 - 757. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816a83ef
Reliability of measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jumps
Cormack, Stuart, Newton, Robert U., McGuigan, Michael and Doyle, Tim. (2008) Reliability of measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jumps. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(2), pp. 131 - 144. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.2.131
Relationship between countermovement jump performance and multijoint isometric and dynamic tests of strength
Nuzzo, James L., McBride, Jeffrey M., Cormie, Prue and McCaulley, Grant O.. (2008) Relationship between countermovement jump performance and multijoint isometric and dynamic tests of strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(3), pp. 699 - 707. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d5eda
Power-time, force-time, and velocity-time curve analysis during the jump squat: Impact of load
Cormie, Prue, McBride, Jeffrey M. and McCaulley, Grant O.. (2008) Power-time, force-time, and velocity-time curve analysis during the jump squat: Impact of load. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 24(2), pp. 112 - 120. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.24.2.112
Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: The incremental load power profile
Sheppard, Jeremy, Cormack, Stuart, Taylor, Kristie-Lee, McGuigan, Michael and Newton, Robert U.. (2008) Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: The incremental load power profile. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(4), pp. 1320 - 1326. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d671b
The use of sprint tests for assessment of speed qualities of elite Australian rules footballers
Young, Warren, Russell, Andrew, Burge, Peter, Clarke, Alex, Cormack, Stuart and Stewart, Glenn. (2008) The use of sprint tests for assessment of speed qualities of elite Australian rules footballers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(2), pp. 199 - 206. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.2.199
The influence of body mass on calculation of power during lower-body resistance exercises
Cormie, Prue, McBride, Jeffrey M. and McCaulley, Grant O.. (2007) The influence of body mass on calculation of power during lower-body resistance exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 21(4), pp. 1042 - 1049. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-21636.1
Mechanical efficiency during repetitive vertical jumping
McCaulley, Grant O., Cormie, Prue, Cavill, Michael J., Nuzzo, James L., Urbiztondo, Zea G. and McBride, Jeffrey M.. (2007) Mechanical efficiency during repetitive vertical jumping. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 101(1), pp. 115 - 123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0480-1
Optimal loading for maximal power output during lower-body resistance exercises
Cormie, Prue, McCaulley, Grant O., Triplett, N. Travis and McBride, Jeffrey M.. (2007) Optimal loading for maximal power output during lower-body resistance exercises. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 39(2), pp. 340 - 349. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000246993.71599.bf
Methodological concerns for determining power output in the jump squat
Cormie, Prue, Deane, Russell and McBride, Jeffrey M.. (2007) Methodological concerns for determining power output in the jump squat. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 21(2), pp. 424 - 430. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-19605.1
Power versus strength-power jump squat training: Influence on the load-power relationship
Cormie, Prue, McCaulley, Grant O. and McBride, Jeffrey M.. (2007) Power versus strength-power jump squat training: Influence on the load-power relationship. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 39(6), pp. 996 - 1003. https://doi.org/10.1097/mss.0b013e3180408e0c
Validation of power measurement techniques in dynamic lower body resistance exercises
Cormie, Prue, McBride, Jeffrey M. and McCaulley, Grant O.. (2007) Validation of power measurement techniques in dynamic lower body resistance exercises. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 23(2), pp. 103 - 118. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.23.2.103
Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power
Cormie, Prue, Deane, Russell, Triplett, N. Travis and McBride, Jeffrey M.. (2006) Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 20(2), pp. 257 - 261. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-17835.1
Isometric squat force output and muscle activity in stable and unstable conditions
McBride, Jeffrey M., Cormie, Prue and Deane, Russell. (2006) Isometric squat force output and muscle activity in stable and unstable conditions. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 20(4), pp. 915 - 918. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-19305.1
Anthropometric and physical abilities profiles: US National Skeleton Team.
Sands, William A., Smith, L. Sarah L., Kivi, Derek M. R., McNeal, Jeni R., Dorman, Jason, Stone, Michael H. and Cormie, Prue. (2005) Anthropometric and physical abilities profiles: US National Skeleton Team. Sports Biomechanics. 4(2), pp. 197 - 214. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140508522863