Structure of force variability during squats performed with an inertial flywheel device under stable versus unstable surfaces

Journal article


Moras, Gerard, Vázquez-Guerrero, Jairo, Fernández-Valdés, Bruno, Rosas-Casals, Marti, Weakley, Jonathon, Jones, Ben and Sampaio, Jaime. (2019) Structure of force variability during squats performed with an inertial flywheel device under stable versus unstable surfaces. Human Movement Science. 66, pp. 497 - 503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.05.022
AuthorsMoras, Gerard, Vázquez-Guerrero, Jairo, Fernández-Valdés, Bruno, Rosas-Casals, Marti, Weakley, Jonathon, Jones, Ben and Sampaio, Jaime
Abstract

The use of unstable surfaces during resistance training has demonstrated a maintenance or reduction on force production. However, the use of unstable surface on force variability has not been assessed using non-linear methods that may be better suited to detect changes in movement variability throughout a given movement. Consequently, this study compared the use of stable vs unstable surfaces on force variability during bilateral squats performed with an inertial flywheel device (Eccoteck, Byomedic System SCP, Spain). Twenty healthy men (mean ± SD: age 22.9 ± 2.9 years, height 1.81 ± 0.7 m, body mass 76.4 ± 7.6 kg and 1RM back squat 110.9 ± 19.7 kg) with a minimum of four years in resistance training performed six sets of six repetitions of squats at maximal concentric effort with one minute rest between sets. Force output on the vertical axes was measured using a strain gauge and the results were processed using non-linear sample entropy (SampEn). Results showed no differences for any of the dependent variables between stable and unstable conditions. SampEn showed no differences between conditions (chi-squared = 0.048 P = 0.827), while Forcemean and SampEn presented a small correlation (r = 0.184; p < 0.01). No changes in entropy were found over the course of the series. Together, these results suggest that the structure of force variability between stable and unstable surfaces are similar. This lack of difference between surfaces may be due to postural and anticipatory adjustments. Consequently, by introducing unstable surfaces to the flywheel bilateral squat exercise, practitioners may not observe changes in Forcemean and force variability when compared to stable surface training suggesting that increased training volumes or intensity may be required during unstable environments to cause a desired training stimulus.

KeywordsSample entropy; Resistance training; Strength training; Performance analysis; Eccentric; Instability
Year2019
JournalHuman Movement Science
Journal citation66, pp. 497 - 503
PublisherElsevier Inc.
ISSN0167-9457
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.05.022
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85067807108
Page range497 - 503
Research GroupSports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies (SPRINT) Research Centre
Publisher's version
File Access Level
Controlled
Place of publicationNetherlands
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