Physical activity environment and Japanese adults’ body mass index

Journal article


Koohsari, Javad, Kaczynski, Andrew T., Hanibuchi, Tomoya, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Yasunaga, Akitomo, Nakaya, Tomoki and Oka, Koichiro. (2018) Physical activity environment and Japanese adults’ body mass index. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15(4), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040596
AuthorsKoohsari, Javad, Kaczynski, Andrew T., Hanibuchi, Tomoya, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Yasunaga, Akitomo, Nakaya, Tomoki and Oka, Koichiro
Abstract

Evidence about the impacts of the physical activity environment on adults’ weight in the context of Asian countries is scarce. Likewise, no study exists in Asia examining whether Walk Score®—a free online walkability tool—is related to obesity. This study aimed to examine associations between multiple physical activity environment measures and Walk Score® ratings with Japanese adults’ body mass index (BMI). Data from 1073 adults in the Healthy Built Environment in Japan study were used. In 2011, participants reported their height and weight. Environmental attributes, including population density, intersection density, density of physical activity facilities, access to public transportation, and availability of sidewalks, were calculated using Geographic Information Systems. Walk Scores® ratings were obtained from the website. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between each environmental attribute and BMI. Adjusting for covariates, all physical activity environmental attributes were negatively associated with BMI. Similarly, an increase of one standard deviation of Walk Score® was associated with a 0.29 (95% confidence interval (CI) of –0.49-–0.09) decrease in BMI. An activity-friendly built environment was associated with lower adults’ BMI in Japan. Investing in healthy community design may positively impact weight status in non-Western contexts

Keywordsurban design; neighbourhood; weight; Asia; active behaviour; urban form
Year2018
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Journal citation15 (4), pp. 1 - 11
PublisherMDPI AG
ISSN1661-7827
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040596
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85044734545
Open accessOpen access
Page range1 - 11
Research GroupMary MacKillop Institute for Health Research
Publisher's version
License
Place of publicationSwitzerland
EditorsP. B. Tchounwou
Permalink -

https://acuresearchbank.acu.edu.au/item/88248/physical-activity-environment-and-japanese-adults-body-mass-index

Download files

  • 0
    total views
  • 1
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month
These values are for the period from 19th October 2020, when this repository was created.

Export as

Related outputs

Dog-walking in dense compact areas: The role of neighbourhood built environment
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Nakaya, Tomoki, McCormack, Gavin R., Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Yasunaga, Akitomo, Liao, Yung and Oka, Koichiro. (2020) Dog-walking in dense compact areas: The role of neighbourhood built environment. Health and Place. 61, pp. 1 - 5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102242
Associations of local-area walkability with disparities in residents' walking and car use
Sugiyama, Takemi, Cole, Rachel, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Kynn, Mary, Sallis, James F. and Owen, Neville. (2019) Associations of local-area walkability with disparities in residents' walking and car use. Preventive Medicine. 120, pp. 126 - 130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.01.017
How do neighbourhood definitions influence the associations between built environment and physical activity?
Mavoa, Suzanne, Bagheri, Nasser, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Kaczynski, Andrew T., Lamb, Karen Elaine, Oka, Koichiro, O'Sullivan, David and Witten, Karen. (2019) How do neighbourhood definitions influence the associations between built environment and physical activity? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16(9), pp. 1 - 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091501
Patterns of objectively assessed sedentary time and physical activity among Japanese workers: A cross-sectional observational study
Kurita, Satoshi, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Owen, Neville and Oka, Koichiro. (2019) Patterns of objectively assessed sedentary time and physical activity among Japanese workers: A cross-sectional observational study. BMJ Open. 9(2), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021690
Are neigborhood environmental attributes more important for older than for younger adults' walking? Testing effect modification by age
Cole, Rachel, Koohsari, Javad, Carver, Alison, Owen, Neville and Sugiyama, Takemi. (2019) Are neigborhood environmental attributes more important for older than for younger adults' walking? Testing effect modification by age. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 27(3), pp. 354 - 359. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2018-0009
Physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment: A laboratory-based evaluation of agreement between commonly used actigraph and omron accelerometers
Yano, Shohei, Koohsari, Javad, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Frehlich, Levi, McCormack, Gavin R. and Oka, Koichiro. (2019) Physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment: A laboratory-based evaluation of agreement between commonly used actigraph and omron accelerometers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16(17), pp. 1 - 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173126
Cognitive function of elderly persons in Japanese neighborhoods: The role of street layout
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Nakaya, Tomoki, McCormack, Gavin R., Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Yasunaga, Akitomo and Oka, Koichiro. (2019) Cognitive function of elderly persons in Japanese neighborhoods: The role of street layout. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias. 34(6), pp. 381 - 389. https://doi.org/10.1177/1533317519844046
Urban design and Japanese older adults’ depressive symptoms
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, McCormack, Gavin R., Nakaya, Tomoki, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Yasunaga, Akitomo, Hanibuchi, Tomoya and Oka, Koichiro. (2019) Urban design and Japanese older adults’ depressive symptoms. Cities. 87, pp. 166 - 173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2018.09.020
Associations of local-area walkability with disparities in residents' walking and car use
Sugiyama, Takemi, Cole, Rachel, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Kynn, Mary, Sallis, James F. and Owen, Neville. (2019) Associations of local-area walkability with disparities in residents' walking and car use. Preventive Medicine. 120, pp. 126 - 130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.01.017
Social-ecological correlates of accelerometer-measured occupational sitting among Japanese desk-based workers
Kurita, Satoshi, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad and Oka, Koichiro. (2019) Social-ecological correlates of accelerometer-measured occupational sitting among Japanese desk-based workers. BMC Public Health. 19, pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7782-1
Walkable urban design attributes and Japanese older adults’ body mass index: Mediation effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Kaczynski, Andrew T., Nakaya, Tomoki, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Yasunaga, Akitomo, Stowe, Ellen W., Hanibuchi, Tomoya and Oka, Koichiro. (2019) Walkable urban design attributes and Japanese older adults’ body mass index: Mediation effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior. American Journal of Health Promotion. 33(5), pp. 764 - 767. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117118814385
Assessing physical activity and sedentary behavior under free-living conditions: Comparison of Active Style Pro HJA-350IT and ActiGraph(TM) GT3X
Yano, Shohei, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Mavoa, Suzanne and Oka, Koichiro. (2019) Assessing physical activity and sedentary behavior under free-living conditions: Comparison of Active Style Pro HJA-350IT and ActiGraph(TM) GT3X. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16(17), pp. 1 - 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173065
Differences in transportation and leisure physical activity by neighborhood design controlling for residential choice
McCormack, Gavin R., Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Oka, Koichiro, Friedenreich, Christine M., Blackstaffe, Anita, Alaniz, Francisco Uribe and Farkas, Brenlea. (2019) Differences in transportation and leisure physical activity by neighborhood design controlling for residential choice. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 8(6), pp. 532 - 539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2019.05.004
Population density is beneficially associated with 12-year diabetes risk marker change among residents of lower socio-economic neighborhoods
van Cauwenberg, Jelle, Dunstan, David, Cerin, Ester, Koohsari, Javad, Sugiyama, Takemi and Owen, Neville. (2019) Population density is beneficially associated with 12-year diabetes risk marker change among residents of lower socio-economic neighborhoods. Health and Place. 57, pp. 74 - 81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.02.006
Natural movement: A space syntax theory linking urban form and function with walking for transport
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Oka, Koichiro, Owen, Neville and Sugiyama, Takemi. (2019) Natural movement: A space syntax theory linking urban form and function with walking for transport. Health and Place. 58, pp. 1 - 5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.01.002
Comparison of older and newer generation active style pro accelerometers in physical activity and sedentary behavior surveillance under a free-living environment
Yano, Shohei, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Frehlich, Levi, McCormack, Gavin R. and Oka, Koichiro. (2019) Comparison of older and newer generation active style pro accelerometers in physical activity and sedentary behavior surveillance under a free-living environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16(9), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091597
Are public open space attributes associated with walking and depression?
Koohsari, Javad, Badland, Hannah, Mavoa, Suzanne, Villanueva, Karen, Francis, Jacinta, Hooper, Paula, Owen, Neville and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2018) Are public open space attributes associated with walking and depression? Cities. 74, pp. 119 - 125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2017.11.011
Validity of Walk Score® as a measure of neighborhood walkability in Japan
Koohsari, Javad, Sugiyama, Takemi, Hanibuchi, Tomoya, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Liao, Yung and Oka, Koichiro. (2018) Validity of Walk Score® as a measure of neighborhood walkability in Japan. Preventive Medicine Reports. 9, pp. 114 - 117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.01.001
Advantages of public green spaces in enhancing population health
Sugiyama, Takemi, Carver, Alison, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad and Veitch, Jenny. (2018) Advantages of public green spaces in enhancing population health. Landscape and Urban Planning. 178, pp. 12 - 17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.05.019
Walk score® and Japanese adults' physically-active and sedentary behaviors
Koohsari, Javad, Sugiyama, Takemi, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Hanibuchi, Tomoya, Liao, Yung, Owen, Neville and Oka, Koichiro. (2018) Walk score® and Japanese adults' physically-active and sedentary behaviors. Cities. 74, pp. 151 - 155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2017.11.016
Prospective associations of local destinations and routes with middle-to-older aged adults' walking
Sugiyama, Takemi, Cerin, Ester, Mridha, Mozammel, Koohsari, Javad and Owen, Neville. (2018) Prospective associations of local destinations and routes with middle-to-older aged adults' walking. Gerontologist. 58(1), pp. 121 - 129. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnx088
Cross-sectional associations of sedentary behaviour and physical activity on depression in Japanese older adults: an isotemporal substitution approach
Yasunaga, Akitomo, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad and Oka, Koichiro. (2018) Cross-sectional associations of sedentary behaviour and physical activity on depression in Japanese older adults: an isotemporal substitution approach. BMJ Open. 8(9), pp. 1 - 5. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022282
Associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with adults' objectively-assessed sedentary time: IPEN adult multi-country study
Owen, Neville, Sugiyama, Takemi, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse, Hadgraft, Nyssa, Oyeyemi, Adewale, Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines, Mitáš, Josef, Troelsen, Jens, Davey, Rachel, Schofield, Grant, Cain, Kelli L., Sarmiento, Olga L., Reis, Rodrigo, Salvo, Deborah, Macfarlane, Duncan J., Sallis, James F. and Cerin, Ester. (2018) Associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with adults' objectively-assessed sedentary time: IPEN adult multi-country study. Preventive Medicine. 115, pp. 126 - 133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.023
Cross-sectional and prospective associations of neighbourhood environmental attributes with screen time in Japanese middle-aged and older adults
Liao, Yung, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Koohsari, Javad and Oka, Koichiro. (2018) Cross-sectional and prospective associations of neighbourhood environmental attributes with screen time in Japanese middle-aged and older adults. BMJ Open. 8(3), pp. 1 - 6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019608
Can neighborhood design support walking? Cross-sectional and prospective findings from Japan
Liao, Yung, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Inoue, Shigeru and Oka, Koichiro. (2018) Can neighborhood design support walking? Cross-sectional and prospective findings from Japan. Journal of Transport and Health. 11, pp. 73 - 79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2018.10.008
Activity-friendly built environments in a super-aged society, Japan: current challenges and toward a research agenda
Koohsari, Javad, Nakaya, Tomoki and Oka, Koichiro. (2018) Activity-friendly built environments in a super-aged society, Japan: current challenges and toward a research agenda. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15(9), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/Ijerph15092054
Associations of neighbourhood walkability indices with weight gain
Koohsari, Mohammad J., Oka, Koichiro, Shibata, Ai, Liao, Yung, Hanibuchi, Tomoya, Owen, Neville and Sugiyama, Takemi. (2018) Associations of neighbourhood walkability indices with weight gain. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 15(1), pp. 1 - 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0668-2
Local food environments, suburban development, and BMI: a mixed methods study
Murphy, Maureen, Badland, Hannah, Jordan, Helen, Koohsari, Javad and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2018) Local food environments, suburban development, and BMI: a mixed methods study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15(7), pp. 1 - 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071392
Associations of total amount and patterns of objectively measured sedentary behavior with performance-based physical function
Liao, Yung, Hsu, Hsiu-Hua, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad and Oka, Koichiro. (2018) Associations of total amount and patterns of objectively measured sedentary behavior with performance-based physical function. Preventive Medicine Reports. 12, pp. 128 - 134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.09.007
Associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with walking in Japan: Moderating effects of area-level socioeconomic status
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Hanibuchi, Tomoya, Nakaya, Tomoki, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Liao, Yung, Oka, Koichiro and Sugiyama, Takemi. (2017) Associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with walking in Japan: Moderating effects of area-level socioeconomic status. Journal of Urban Health. 94(6), pp. 847 - 854. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-017-0199-1
Built environmental factors and adults' travel behaviors: role of street layout and local destinations
Koohsari, Javad, Owen, Neville, Cole, Rachel, Mavoa, Suzanne, Oka, Koichiro, Hanibuchi, Tomoya and Sugiyama, Takemi. (2017) Built environmental factors and adults' travel behaviors: role of street layout and local destinations. Preventive Medicine. 96, pp. 124 - 128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.12.021
Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas
Murphy, Maureen, Koohsari, Javad, Badland, Hannah and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2017) Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas. Public Health Nutrition. 20(18), pp. 3304 - 3315. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017002336
Associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with older adults' physical function: an isotemporal subtitution approach
Yasunaga, Akitomo, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Koohsari, Javad, Inoue, Shigeru, Sugiyama, Takemi, Owen, Neville and Oka, Koichiro. (2017) Associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with older adults' physical function: an isotemporal subtitution approach. BMC Geriatrics. 17(1), pp. 1 - 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-017-0675-1
Prevalence and correlates of walkable short car trips: A cross-sectional multilevel analysis
Cole, Rachel, Turrell, Gavin, Koohsari, Javad, Owen, Neville and Sugiyama, Takemi. (2017) Prevalence and correlates of walkable short car trips: A cross-sectional multilevel analysis. Journal of Transport and Health. 4, pp. 73 - 80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2016.11.007
Associations of street layout with walking and sedentary behaviors in an urban and a rural area of japan
Koohsari, Javad, Sugiyama, Takemi, Shibata, Ai, Ishii, Kaori, Liao, Yung, Hanibuchi, Tomoya, Owen, Neville and Oka, Koichiro. (2017) Associations of street layout with walking and sedentary behaviors in an urban and a rural area of japan. Health and Place. 45, pp. 64 - 69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.03.003
Street network measures and adults' walking for transport: Application of space syntax
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Sugiyama, Takemi, Mavoa, Suzanne, Villanueva, Karen, Badland, Hannah, Giles-Corti, Billie and Owen, Neville. (2016) Street network measures and adults' walking for transport: Application of space syntax. Health and Place. 38, pp. 89 - 95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.12.009
Adverse associations of car time with markers of cardio-metabolic risk
Sugiyama, Takemi, Wijndaele, Katrien, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Tanamas, Stephanie K., Dunstan, David W. and Owen, Neville. (2016) Adverse associations of car time with markers of cardio-metabolic risk. Preventive Medicine. 83(February), pp. 26 - 30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.11.029
Adverse associations of car time with markers of cardio-metabolic risk
Sugiyama, Takemi, Wijndaele, Katrien, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Tanamas, Stephanie K., Dunstan, David Wayne and Owen, Neville. (2016) Adverse associations of car time with markers of cardio-metabolic risk. Preventive Medicine. 83(February), pp. 26 - 30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.11.029
Discussion of "How To Have Sustainable Transportation Without Making People Drive Less Or Give Up Suburban Living" by Mark Delucchi and Kenneth S. Kurani
Giles-Corti, Billie, Sugiyama, Takemi, Badland, Hannah, Koohsari, Javad and Owen, Neville. (2016) Discussion of "How To Have Sustainable Transportation Without Making People Drive Less Or Give Up Suburban Living" by Mark Delucchi and Kenneth S. Kurani. Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 140(2), pp. 1 - 3. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000172
Walkability and walking for transport: Characterizing the built environment using space syntax
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Owen, Neville, Cerin, Ester, Giles-Corti, Billie and Sugiyama, Takemi. (2016) Walkability and walking for transport: Characterizing the built environment using space syntax. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 13(121), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0448-9
Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda
Koohsari, Mohammad, Mavoa, Suzanne, Villanueva, Karen, Sugiyama, Takemi, Badland, Hannah, Kaczynski, Andrew, Owen, Neville and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2015) Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda. Health and Place. 33, pp. 75 - 82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.02.009
Neighborhood environmental attributes and adults' sedentary behaviors: Review and research agenda
Koohsari, Mohammad, Sugiyama, Takemi, Sahlqvist, Shannon, Mavoa, Suzanne, Hadgraft, Nyssa and Owen, Neville. (2015) Neighborhood environmental attributes and adults' sedentary behaviors: Review and research agenda. Preventive Medicine. 77, pp. 141 - 149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.05.027
Neighborhood environmental attributes and adults' maintenance of regular walking
Sugiyama, Takemi, Shibata, Ai, Koohsari, Mohammad, Tanamas, Stephanie, Oka, Koichiro, Salmon, Jo, Dunstan, David and Owen, Neville. (2015) Neighborhood environmental attributes and adults' maintenance of regular walking. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(6), pp. 1204 - 1210. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000528
Mismatch between perceived and objectively measured land use mix and street connectivity: Associations with neighborhood walking
Koohsari, Mohammad, Badland, Hannah, Sugiyama, Takemi, Mavoa, Suzanne, Christian, Hayley and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2015) Mismatch between perceived and objectively measured land use mix and street connectivity: Associations with neighborhood walking. Journal of Urban Health. 92(2), pp. 242 - 252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-014-9928-x
Association of street connectivity and road traffic speed with park usage and park-based physical activity
Kaczynski, Andrew T., Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A., Bergstrom, Ryan and Sugiyama, Takemi. (2014) Association of street connectivity and road traffic speed with park usage and park-based physical activity. American Journal of Health Promotion. 28(3), pp. 197 - 203. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.120711-QUAN-339
Street connectivity and walking for transport: Role of neighborhood destinations
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Sugiyama, Takemi, Lamb, Karen Elaine, Villanueva, Karen and Owen, Neville. (2014) Street connectivity and walking for transport: Role of neighborhood destinations. Preventive Medicine. 66, pp. 118 - 122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.06.019
Using space syntax to assess the built environment for physical activity: Applications to research on parks and public open spaces
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Kaczynski, Andrew T., Mcormack, Gavin R. and Sugiyama, Takemi. (2014) Using space syntax to assess the built environment for physical activity: Applications to research on parks and public open spaces. Leisure Sciences. 36(2), pp. 206 - 216. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400.2013.856722
Associations of leisure-time sitting in cars with neighborhood walkability
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Sugiyama, Takemi, Kaczynski, Andrew T. and Owen, Neville. (2014) Associations of leisure-time sitting in cars with neighborhood walkability. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 11(6), pp. 1129 - 1132. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2012-0385
People living in hilly residential areas in metropolitan Perth have less diabetes: Spurious association or important environmental determinant?
Villanueva, Karen, Knuiman, Matthew, Koohsari, Mohammad Javad, Hickey, Sharyn, Foster, Sarah, Badland, Hannah, Nathan, Andrea Grace, Bull, Fiona and Giles-Corti, Billie. (2013) People living in hilly residential areas in metropolitan Perth have less diabetes: Spurious association or important environmental determinant? International Journal of Health Geographics. 12(59), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-12-59