The efficacy of early language intervention in mainstream school settings: a randomized controlled trial

Journal article


Fricke, Silke, Burgoyne, Kelly, Boyer-Crane, Claudine, Kyriacou, Maria, Zosimidou, Alexandra, Maxwell, Liam, Lervag, Arne, Snowling, Margaret J. and Hulme, Charles. (2017) The efficacy of early language intervention in mainstream school settings: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 58(10), pp. 1141 - 1151. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12737
AuthorsFricke, Silke, Burgoyne, Kelly, Boyer-Crane, Claudine, Kyriacou, Maria, Zosimidou, Alexandra, Maxwell, Liam, Lervag, Arne, Snowling, Margaret J. and Hulme, Charles
Abstract

Background: Oral language skills are a critical foundation for literacy and more generally for educational success. The current study shows that oral language skills can be improved by providing suitable additional help to children with language difficulties in the early stages of formal education. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 394 children in England, comparing a 30-week oral language intervention programme starting in nursery (N=132) with a 20-week version of the same programme starting in Reception (N=133). The intervention groups were compared to an untreated waiting control group (N=129). The programmes were delivered by trained teaching assistants (TAs) working in the children’s schools/nurseries. All testers were blind to group allocation. Results: Both the 20- and 30-week programmes produced improvements on primary outcome measures of oral language skill compared to the untreated control group. Effect sizes were small to moderate (20-week programme: d=.21; 30-week programme: d=.30) immediately following the intervention and were maintained at follow-up 6 months later. The difference in improvement between the 20-week and 30-week programmes was not statistically significant. Neither programme produced statistically significant improvements in children’s early word reading or reading comprehension skills (secondary outcome measures). Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that oral language interventions can be delivered successfully by trained TAs to children with oral language difficulties in nursery and Reception classes. The methods evaluated have potentially important policy implications for early education.

Year2017
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Journal citation58 (10), pp. 1141 - 1151
PublisherBlackwell Publishing Ltd
ISSN0021-9630
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12737
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85019372061
Open accessOpen access
Page range1141 - 1151
Research GroupInstitute for Learning Sciences and Teacher Education (ILSTE)
Publisher's version
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
EditorsE. Sonuga-Barke
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Hulme, Charles and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2014) The interface between spoken and written language: Developmental disorders. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 369(1634), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0395
Comorbidities in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia
Gooch, Debbie, Hulme, Charles, Nash, Hannah M. and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2014) Comorbidities in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 55(3), pp. 237 - 246. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12139
White matter morphometric changes uniquely predict children's reading acquisition
Myers, Chelsea A., Vandermosten, Maaike, Farris, Emily A., Hancock, Roeland, Gimenez, Paul, Black, Jessica M., Casto, Brandi, Drahos, Miroslav, Tumber, Mandeep, Hendren, Robert L., Hulme, Charles and Hoeft, Fumiko. (2014) White matter morphometric changes uniquely predict children's reading acquisition. Psychological Science. 25(10), pp. 1870 - 1883. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614544511
Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: Testing the role of phonological knowledge
Mengoni, Silvana E., Nash, Hannah M. and Hulme, Charles. (2014) Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: Testing the role of phonological knowledge. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 35(5), pp. 1098 - 1109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.01.030
Developing the reading skills of children with Down syndrome
Burgoyne, Kelly, Baxter, Becky and Buckley, Sue. (2014) Developing the reading skills of children with Down syndrome. In In R. Faragher and B. Clarke (Ed.). Educating learners with down syndrome: Research, theory, and practice with children and adolescents pp. 195 - 220 Routledge.
Different Patterns, but Equivalent Predictors, of Growth in Reading in Consistent and Inconsistent Orthographies
Caralovas, Marketa, Lervag, Arne, Defior, Sylvia, Seidlova-Malkova, Gabriela and Hulme, Charles. (2013) Different Patterns, but Equivalent Predictors, of Growth in Reading in Consistent and Inconsistent Orthographies. Psychological Science. 24(8), pp. 1398 - 1407. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612473122
Efficacy of language intervention in the early years
Fricke, Silke, Bowyer-Crane, Claudine, Haley, Allyson J., Hulme, Charles and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2013) Efficacy of language intervention in the early years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. 54(3), pp. 280 - 290. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12010
Training phoneme blending skills in children with Down syndrome
Burgoyne, Kelly, Duff, Fiona, Snowling, Margaret and Hulme, Charles. (2013) Training phoneme blending skills in children with Down syndrome. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 29(3), pp. 273 - 290. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265659012474674
Children's reading impairments: From theory to practice
Snowling, Margaret J. and Hulme, Charles. (2013) Children's reading impairments: From theory to practice. Japanese Psychological Research. 55(2), pp. 186 - 202. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5884.2012.00541.x
Developing Reading Comprehension
Clarke, Paula J., Truelove, Emma, Hulme, Charles and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2013) Developing Reading Comprehension Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118606711
Preschool language profiles of children at family risk of dyslexia: Continuities with specific language impairment
Nash, Hannah M,, Hulme, Charles, Gooch, Debbie and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2013) Preschool language profiles of children at family risk of dyslexia: Continuities with specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. 54(9), pp. 958 - 968. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12091
Learning to Read: What we know and what we need to understand better
Hulme, Charles and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2013) Learning to Read: What we know and what we need to understand better. Child Development Perspectives. 7(1), pp. 1 - 5. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12005
Is working memory training effective? : A meta-analytic review
Melby-Lervag, Monica and Hulme, Charles. (2013) Is working memory training effective? : A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028228
The benefit of orthographic support for oral vocabulary learning in children with Down syndrome
Mengoni, Silvana E., Nash, Hannah and Hulme, Charles. (2013) The benefit of orthographic support for oral vocabulary learning in children with Down syndrome. Journal of Child Language. 40(1), pp. 221 - 243. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000912000396
The role of background knowledge in text comprehension for children learning English as an additional language
Burgoyne, Kelly, Whiteley, Helen E. and Hutchinson, Jane M.. (2013) The role of background knowledge in text comprehension for children learning English as an additional language. Journal of Research in Reading. 36(2), pp. 132 - 148. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2011.01493.x
Current evidence does not support the claims made for CogMed working memory training
Melby-Lervag, Monica and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Current evidence does not support the claims made for CogMed working memory training. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. 1(3), pp. 197 - 200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2012.06.006
Efficacy of a reading and language intervention for children with down syndrome : a randomized controlled trial
Burgoyne, Kelly, Duff, Fiona, Clarke, Paula, Buckley, Sue, Snowling, Margaret and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Efficacy of a reading and language intervention for children with down syndrome : a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 53(10), pp. 1044 - 1053. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02557.x
Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties
Snowling, Margaret J. and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders. 47(1), pp. 27 - 34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-6984.2011.00081.x
Reading skills in children with Down syndrome: A meta-analytic review
Naess, Kari-Anne, Melby-Lervag, Monica, Hulme, Charles and Lyster, Solveig-Alma. (2012) Reading skills in children with Down syndrome: A meta-analytic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 33(2), pp. 737 - 747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.09.019
Phonological skills and their role in learning to read : a meta-analytic review
Melby-Lervag, Monica, Lyster, Solveig-Alma and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Phonological skills and their role in learning to read : a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin. 138(2), pp. 322 - 352. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026744
The Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness and Letter-Sound Knowledge in Learning to REad : Combining Intervention Studies with Mediation Analyses
Hulme, Charles, Bowyer-Crane, Claudine, Carroll, Julia, Duff, Fiona and Snowling, Margaret. (2012) The Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness and Letter-Sound Knowledge in Learning to REad : Combining Intervention Studies with Mediation Analyses. Psychological Science. 23(6), pp. 572 - 577. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611435921
Reaction time variability in Children with ADHD symptoms and/or dyslexia
Gooch, Debbie, Snowling, Margaret and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Reaction time variability in Children with ADHD symptoms and/or dyslexia. Developmental Neuropsychology. 37(5), pp. 452 - 472. https://doi.org/10.1080/87565641.2011.650809
Evaluating the effectiveness of a phonologically based reading intervention for struggling readers with varying language profiles
Duff, Fiona, Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Evaluating the effectiveness of a phonologically based reading intervention for struggling readers with varying language profiles. Reading and Writing: An interdisciplinary journal. 25(3), pp. 621 - 640. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-010-9291-6
The role of children's phonological and semantic knowledge in learning to read words
Duff, Fiona and Hulme, Charles. (2012) The role of children's phonological and semantic knowledge in learning to read words. Scientific Studies of Reading. 16(6), pp. 504 - 525. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2011.598199
Validity of a protocol for adult self-report of dyslexia and related difficulties
Snowling, Margaret, Dawes, Piers, Nash, Hannah and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Validity of a protocol for adult self-report of dyslexia and related difficulties. Dyslexia: an international journal of research and practice. 18, pp. 1 - 15. https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.1432
Maternal History of reading difficulty is associated with reduced language-related gray matter in beginning readers
Black, Jessica, Tanaka, Hiroko, Stanley, Leanne, Nagamine, Masanori, Zakerani, Nahal, Thurston, Alexandra, Kesler, Shelli, Hulme, Charles, Lyytinen, Heikki and Glover, Gary. (2012) Maternal History of reading difficulty is associated with reduced language-related gray matter in beginning readers. NeuroImage. 59, pp. 3021 - 3032. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.10.024
Annual Research Review : The Nature and Classification of Reading Disorders - commentary on proposals for DSM-5
Snowling, Margaret and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Annual Research Review : The Nature and Classification of Reading Disorders - commentary on proposals for DSM-5. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 53(5), pp. 593 - 607. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02495.x
Nonword-Repetition ability does not appear to be a causal influence on Children's vocabulary Development
Melby-Lervag, Monica, Lervag, Arne, Lyster, Solveig-Alma, Klem, Marianne, Hagtvet, Bente and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Nonword-Repetition ability does not appear to be a causal influence on Children's vocabulary Development. Psychological Science. 23(10), pp. 1092 - 1098. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612443833
Phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, and rapid automatized naming as predictors of individual differences in reading ability
Warmington, Meesha and Hulme, Charles. (2012) Phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, and rapid automatized naming as predictors of individual differences in reading ability. Scientific Studies of Reading. 16(1), pp. 45 - 62. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2010.534832
Response to Early Intervention of Children with Specific and General Language Impairment
Bowyer-Crane, Claudine, Snowling, Margaret, Duff, Fiona and Hulme, Charles. (2011) Response to Early Intervention of Children with Specific and General Language Impairment. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal. 9(2), pp. 107 - 121.
Time perception, phonological skills and executive function in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms
Gooch, Debbie, Snowling, Margaret and Hulme, Charles. (2011) Time perception, phonological skills and executive function in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. 52(2), pp. 195 - 203. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02312.x
Children's Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Nature, Causes, and Treatments
Hulme, Charles and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2011) Children's Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Nature, Causes, and Treatments. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 20(3), pp. 139 - 142. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411408673
The brain basis of the phonological deficit in dyslexia is independent of IQ
Tanaka, Hiroko, Black, Jessica, Hulme, Charles, Stanley, Leanne, Kesler, Shelli, Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan, Reiss, Allan, Gabrieli, John and Hoeft, Fumiko. (2011) The brain basis of the phonological deficit in dyslexia is independent of IQ. Psychological Science. 20(10), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611419521
Developing Language and Literacy: Effective Intervention in the Early Years
Carroll, Julia M., Boyer-Crane, Claudia, Duff, Fiona J., Hulme, Charles and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2011) Developing Language and Literacy: Effective Intervention in the Early Years Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470977460
Evidence-based interventions for reading and language difficulties :Creating a virtuous circle
Snowling, Margaret and Hulme, Charles. (2011) Evidence-based interventions for reading and language difficulties :Creating a virtuous circle. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 81(1), pp. 1 - 23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.2010.02014.x
The development of comprehension and reading-related skills in a sample of children learning English as an additional language and their monolingual, English-Speaking Peers
Burgoyne, K., Whiteley, H. E. and Hutchinson, J. M.. (2011) The development of comprehension and reading-related skills in a sample of children learning English as an additional language and their monolingual, English-Speaking Peers. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 81(2), pp. 344 - 354. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709910X504122
Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia
Hoeft, Fumiko, McCandliss, Bruce, Black, Jessica, Gantman, Alexander, Zakerani, Nahal, Hulme, Charles, Lyytinen, Heikki, Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan, Glover, Gary, Reiss, Allan and Gabrieli, John. (2011) Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 108(1), pp. 361 - 366. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1008950108
The growth of reading skills in children with Down Syndrome
Hulme, Charles, Goetz, Kristina, Brigstocke, Sophie, Nash, Hannah, Lervag, Arne and Snowling, Margaret. (2011) The growth of reading skills in children with Down Syndrome. Developmental Science. 15(3), pp. 320 - 329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01129.x
A systematic meta-analytic review of evidence for the effectiveness of the 'Fast ForWord language intervention program
Strong, Gemma, Torgerson, Carole, Torgerson, David and Hulme, Charles. (2011) A systematic meta-analytic review of evidence for the effectiveness of the 'Fast ForWord language intervention program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 52(3), pp. 224 - 235. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02329.x
Language and verbal short-term memory skills in Children with Down syndrome :A meta-analytic review
Naess, Kari-Anne, Lyster, Solveig-Alma, Hulme, Charles and Melby-Lervag, Monica. (2011) Language and verbal short-term memory skills in Children with Down syndrome :A meta-analytic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 32(6), pp. 2225 - 2234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.05.014
Serial and free recall in children can be improved by training : evidence for the importance of phonological and semantic representations in immediate memory tasks
Melby-Lervag, Monica and Hulme, Charles. (2010) Serial and free recall in children can be improved by training : evidence for the importance of phonological and semantic representations in immediate memory tasks. Psychological Science. 21(11), pp. 1694 - 1700. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610385355
Ameliorating Children's reading-comprehension difficulties : A randomized controlled trial
Clarke, Paula, Snowling, Margaret, Truelove, Emma and Hulme, Charles. (2010) Ameliorating Children's reading-comprehension difficulties : A randomized controlled trial. Psychological Science. 21(8), pp. 1106 - 1116. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610375449
Predicting the growth of early spelling skills : are there heterogeneous developmental trajectories?
Lervag, Arne and Hulme, Charles. (2010) Predicting the growth of early spelling skills : are there heterogeneous developmental trajectories? Scientific Studies of Reading. 14(6), pp. 485 - 513. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888431003623488
Learning to read changes children's phonological skills: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study of reading and nonword repetition
Nation, Kate and Hulme, Charles. (2010) Learning to read changes children's phonological skills: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study of reading and nonword repetition. Developmental Science. 14(4), pp. 649 - 659. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.01008.x
The comprehension skills of children learning English as an additional language
Burgoyne, Kelly. (2009) The comprehension skills of children learning English as an additional language. British Journal of Educational Psychology.
Reading interventions for children with Down syndrome
Burgoyne, Kelly. (2009) Reading interventions for children with Down syndrome. Down Syndrome Research and Practice.
Developmental disorders of language learning and cognition
Hulme, Charles and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2009) Developmental disorders of language learning and cognition Wiley-Blackwell.
Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) taps a mechanism that places constraints on the development of early reading fluency
Lervag, Arne and Hulme, Charles. (2009) Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) taps a mechanism that places constraints on the development of early reading fluency. Psychological Science. 20(8), pp. 1040 - 1047. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02405.x
The cognitive and linguistic foundations of early reading development: A Norwegian latent variable longitudinal study
Lervag, Arne, Braten, Ivar and Hulme, Charles. (2009) The cognitive and linguistic foundations of early reading development: A Norwegian latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology. 45(3), pp. 764 - 781. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014132
Training reading and phoneme awareness skills in children with down syndrome
Goetz, Kristina, Hulme, Charles, Brigstocke, Sophie, Carroll, Julia M., Nasir, Louise and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2008) Training reading and phoneme awareness skills in children with down syndrome. Reading and Writing: An interdisciplinary journal. 21, pp. 395 - 412. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-007-9089-3
Improving early language and literacy skills: Differential effects of an oral language versus a phonology with reading intervention
Boyer-Crane, Claudine, Snowling, Margaret J., Duff, Fiona J., Fieldsend, Elizabeth, Carroll, Julia M., Miles, Jeremy, Gotz, Kristina and Hulme, Charles. (2008) Improving early language and literacy skills: Differential effects of an oral language versus a phonology with reading intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 49(4), pp. 422 - 432. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01849.x
Reading with vocabulary intervention: Evaluation of an instruction for children with poor response to reading intervention
Duff, Fiona J., Fieldsend, Elizabeth, Bowyer-Crane, Claudine, Hulme, Charles, Smith, Glynnis, Gibbs, Simon and Snowling, Margaret J.. (2008) Reading with vocabulary intervention: Evaluation of an instruction for children with poor response to reading intervention. Journal of Research in Reading. 31(3), pp. 319 - 336. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2008.00376.x
Reading and other specific learning difficulties
Snowling, Margaret J. and Hulme, Charles. (2008) Reading and other specific learning difficulties. In In M. Rutter, D.V.M. Bishop and D.S. Pine, S. Scott, J. Stevenson, E. Taylor & A. Thapar (Ed.). Rutter's child and adolescent psychiatry pp. 802 - 819 Blackwell Publishers Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444300895.ch48
Reading intervention for children with language learning difficulties
Snowling, Margaret J. and Hulme, Charles. (2008) Reading intervention for children with language learning difficulties. In In C. Frazier Norbury, J.B. Tomblin and D.V.M. Bishop (Ed.). Understanding developmental language disorders: From theory to practice pp. 175 - 188 Psychology Press.