Emotion transmission in the classroom revisited: A reciprocal effects model of teacher and student enjoyment

Journal article


Frenzel, Anne C., Becker-Kurz, Betty, Pekrun, Reinhard, Goetz, Thomas and Lüdtke, Oliver. (2018). Emotion transmission in the classroom revisited: A reciprocal effects model of teacher and student enjoyment. Journal of Educational Psychology. 110(5), pp. 628 - 639. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000228
AuthorsFrenzel, Anne C., Becker-Kurz, Betty, Pekrun, Reinhard, Goetz, Thomas and Lüdtke, Oliver
Abstract

Enjoyment is one of the most relevant and frequently experienced discrete emotions for both teachers and students in classroom learning contexts. Based on theories of emotion transmission between interaction partners, we propose a reciprocal effects model linking teachers’ and students’ enjoyment in class. The model suggests that there are positive reciprocal links between teachers’ and students’ enjoyment and that these links are mediated by teachers’ and students’ observations of each other’s classroom behaviors. The model was tested using 3-wave longitudinal data collected across the 1st 6 months of a school year from N = 69 teachers (78% female) and their 1,643 students from Grades 5 to 10 (57% female). A multilevel structural equation model confirmed our mediation hypotheses. Teacher enjoyment at the beginning of the school year (Time 1 [T1]) was positively related to student perceptions of teachers’ enthusiasm during teaching 4 weeks later (T2), which was positively related to student enjoyment at midterm (T3). Further, student enjoyment at T1 was positively related to teacher perceptions of their students’ engagement in class at T2, which was positively related to teacher enjoyment at T3. This study is the first to provide longitudinal evidence of reciprocal emotion transmission between teachers and students. Implications for future research and teacher training are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

Keywordsteacher enjoyment; student enjoyment; emotion transmission; multilevel structural equation modeling
Year2018
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Journal citation110 (5), pp. 628 - 639
PublisherAmerican Psychological Association Inc.
ISSN0022-0663
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000228
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85038608213
Page range628 - 639
Research GroupInstitute for Positive Psychology and Education
Publisher's version
File Access Level
Controlled
Place of publicationUnited States of America
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The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire : Validation for pre-adolescent students
Peixoto, Francisco, Mata, Lourdes, Monteiro, Vera, Sanches, Cristina and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2015). The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire : Validation for pre-adolescent students. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. 12(4), pp. 472 - 481. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2015.1040757
Teaching this class drives me nuts! - Examining the person and context specificity of teacher emotions
Frenzel, Anne C., Becker-Kurz, Betty, Pekrun, Reinhard and Goetz, Thomas. (2015). Teaching this class drives me nuts! - Examining the person and context specificity of teacher emotions. PLoS ONE. 10(6), pp. 1 - 15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129630
Differential binding of colors to objects in memory: Red and yellow stick better than blue and green
Kuhbandner, Christof, Spitzer, Bernhard, Lichtenfeld, Stephanie and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2015). Differential binding of colors to objects in memory: Red and yellow stick better than blue and green. Frontiers in Psychology. 6(231), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00231
The curious case of climate change: Testing a theoretical model of epistemic beliefs, epistemic emotions, and complex learning
Muis, Krista R., Pekrun, Reinhard, Sinatra, Gale M., Azevedo, Roger, Trevors, Gregory, Meier, Elisabeth and Heddy, Benjamin C.. (2015). The curious case of climate change: Testing a theoretical model of epistemic beliefs, epistemic emotions, and complex learning. Learning and Instruction. 39, pp. 168 - 183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.06.003
Internal/external frame of reference model
Marsh, Herbert W., Möller, Jens, Parker, Philip, Xu, Man K., Nagengast, Benjamin and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2015). Internal/external frame of reference model. In In J. D. Wright (Ed.). International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences pp. 425 - 432 Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.26084-4
Confusion can be beneficial for learning
D'Mello, Sidney, Lehman, Blair, Pekrun, Reinhard and Graesser, Art. (2014). Confusion can be beneficial for learning. Learning and Instruction. 29, pp. 153 - 170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2012.05.003
Attribution-based treatment interventions in some achievement settings
Perry, Raymond P., Chipperfield, Judith G., Hladkyj, Steve, Pekrun, Reinhard and Hamm, Jeremy M.. (2014). Attribution-based treatment interventions in some achievement settings. Advances in Motivation and Achievement. 18, pp. 1 - 35. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0749-742320140000018000
Negative affect improves the quality of memories: Trading capacity for precision in sensory and working memory
Spachtholz, Philipp, Kuhbandner, Christof and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2014). Negative affect improves the quality of memories: Trading capacity for precision in sensory and working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 143(4), pp. 1450 - 1456. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000012
Using control-value theory to understand achievement emotions in medical education
Artino, Anthony R. and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2014). Using control-value theory to understand achievement emotions in medical education. Academic Medicine. 89(12), pp. 1696 - 1696. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000536
Overcoming fixed mindsets: The role of affect
Haager, Julia S., Kuhbandner, Christof and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2014). Overcoming fixed mindsets: The role of affect. Cognition and Emotion. 28(4), pp. 756 - 767. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2013.851645
Types of boredom: An experience sampling approach
Goetz, Thomas, Frenzel, Anne C., Hall, Nathan C., Nett, Ulrike E., Pekrun, Reinhard and Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.. (2014). Types of boredom: An experience sampling approach. Motivation and Emotion. 38(3), pp. 401 - 419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-013-9385-y
Memory suppression can help people "unlearn" behavioral responses-but only for nonemotional memories
Sakaki, Michiko, Kuhbandner, Christof, Mather, Mara and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2014). Memory suppression can help people "unlearn" behavioral responses-but only for nonemotional memories. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review. 21(1), pp. 136 - 141. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0480-6
The power of anticipated feedback: Effects on students' achievement goals and achievement emotions
Pekrun, Reinhard, Cusack, Aisling, Murayama, Kou, Elliot, Andrew J. and Thomas, Kevin. (2014). The power of anticipated feedback: Effects on students' achievement goals and achievement emotions. Learning and Instruction. 29(February), pp. 115 - 124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.09.002
Boredom and academic achievement: Testing a model of reciprocal causation
Pekrun, Reinhard, Hall, Nathan C., Goetz, Thomas and Perry, Raymond P.. (2014). Boredom and academic achievement: Testing a model of reciprocal causation. Journal of Educational Psychology. 106(3), pp. 696 - 710. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036006
The influence of red on impression formation in a job application context
Maier, Markus A., Elliot, Andrew J., Lee, Borah, Lichtenfeld, Stephanie, Barchfeld, Petra and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2013). The influence of red on impression formation in a job application context. Motivation and Emotion. 37(3), pp. 389 - 401. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-012-9326-1
Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: The unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies
Murayama, Kou, Pekrun, Reinhard, Lichtenfeld, Stephanie and vom Hofe, Rudolf. (2013). Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: The unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies. Child Development. 84(4), pp. 1475 - 1490. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12036
Do girls really experience more anxiety in mathematics?
Goetz, Thomas, Bieg, Madeleine, Ludtke, Oliver, Pekrun, Reinhard and Hall, Nathan C.. (2013). Do girls really experience more anxiety in mathematics? Psychological Science. 24(10), pp. 2079 - 2087. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613486989
Affective state influences retrieval-induced forgetting for integrated knowledge
Kuhbandner, Christof and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2013). Affective state influences retrieval-induced forgetting for integrated knowledge. PLoS ONE. 8(2), pp. 1 - 6. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056617
Joint effects of emotion and color on memory
Kuhbandner, Christof and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2013). Joint effects of emotion and color on memory. Emotion. 13(3), pp. 375 - 379. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031821
Teaching methods for modelling problems and students' task-specific enjoyment, value, interest and self-efficacy expectations
Schukajlow, Stanislaw, Leiss, Dominik, Pekrun, Reinhard, Blum, Werner, Muller, Marcel and Messner, Rudolf. (2012). Teaching methods for modelling problems and students' task-specific enjoyment, value, interest and self-efficacy expectations. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 79(2), pp. 215 - 237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-011-9341-2
Beyond quantitative decline: Conceptual shifts in adolescents' development of interest in mathematics
Frenzel, Anne C., Pekrun, Reinhard, Dicke, Anna-Lena and Goetz, Thomas. (2012). Beyond quantitative decline: Conceptual shifts in adolescents' development of interest in mathematics. Developmental Psychology. 48(4), pp. 1069 - 1082. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026895
Students' emotions during homework: Structures, self-concept antecedents, and achievement outcomes
Goetz, Thomas, Nett, Ulrike E., Martiny, Sarah E., Hall, Nathan C., Pekrun, Reinhard, Dettmers, Swantje and Trautwein, Ulrich. (2012). Students' emotions during homework: Structures, self-concept antecedents, and achievement outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(2), pp. 225 - 234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.04.006
Measuring students' emotions in the early years: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School (AEQ-ES)
Lichtenfeld, Stephanie, Pekrun, Reinhard, Stupnisky, Robert H., Reiss, Kristina and Murayama, Kou. (2012). Measuring students' emotions in the early years: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School (AEQ-ES). Learning and Individual Differences. 22(2), pp. 190 - 201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.04.009
Fertile green: Green facilitates creative performance
Lichtenfeld, Stephanie, Elliot, Andrew J., Maier, Markus A. and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2012). Fertile green: Green facilitates creative performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 38(6), pp. 784 - 797. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212436611
Measuring emotions in students' learning and performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ)
Pekrun, Reinhard, Goetz, Thomas, Frenzel, Anne C., Barchfeld, Petra and Perry, Raymond P.. (2011). Measuring emotions in students' learning and performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). Contemporary Educational Psychology. 36(1), pp. 36 - 48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.10.002
Read-out of emotional information from iconic memory: The longevity of threatening stimuli
Kuhbandner, Christof, Spitzer, Bernhard and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2011). Read-out of emotional information from iconic memory: The longevity of threatening stimuli. Psychological Science. 22(5), pp. 695 - 700. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611406445
Students' emotions and academic engagement: Introduction to the special issue
Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2011). Students' emotions and academic engagement: Introduction to the special issue. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 36(1), pp. 1 - 3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.11.004
Students' emotions during homework in mathematics: Testing a theoretical model of antecedents and achievement outcomes
Dettmers, Swantje, Trautwein, Ulrich, Ludtke, Oliver, Goetz, Thomas, Frenzel, Anne C. and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2011). Students' emotions during homework in mathematics: Testing a theoretical model of antecedents and achievement outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 36(1), pp. 25 - 35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.10.001
A 3 × 2 achievement goal model
Elliot, Andrew J., Murayama, Kou and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2011). A 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology. 103(3), pp. 632 - 648. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023952
Teacher enthusiasm: Dimensionality and context specificity
Kunter, Marieke, Frenzel, Anne C., Nagy, Gabriel, Baumert, Jurgen and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2011). Teacher enthusiasm: Dimensionality and context specificity. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 36(4), pp. 289 - 301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.07.001
Always look on the broad side of life: Happiness increases the breadth of sensory memory
Kuhbandner, Christof, Lichtenfeld, Stephanie and Pekrun, Reinhard. (2011). Always look on the broad side of life: Happiness increases the breadth of sensory memory. Emotion. 11(4), pp. 958 - 964. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024075