School starting age and child development in a state-wide, population-level cohort of children in their first year of school in New South Wales, Australia

Journal article


Hanly, Mark, Edwards, Ben, Goldfeld, Sharon, Craven, Rhonda G., Mooney, Janet, Jorm, Louisa and Falster, Kathleen. (2019) School starting age and child development in a state-wide, population-level cohort of children in their first year of school in New South Wales, Australia. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 48, pp. 325 - 340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2019.01.008
AuthorsHanly, Mark, Edwards, Ben, Goldfeld, Sharon, Craven, Rhonda G., Mooney, Janet, Jorm, Louisa and Falster, Kathleen
Abstract

In Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales (NSW), children born between January and July have the choice to start school in the year they turn five, or delay entry until the year they turn six. We used linked administrative data for children who started school in NSW in 2009 or 2012 (N = 162,878) to identify child, family and area characteristics associated with delayed entry, and to explore the relationship between school starting age and five domains of child development, measured using the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) in the first year of school. Among both the 2009 and 2012 cohorts, 26% of children delayed starting school until the year they turned six. Area-level rates of delay ranged from 8% to 54% across 198 areas in NSW, with lower levels in disadvantaged urban areas. Factors associated with delayed entry included male sex, a birth date close to the enrolment cut-off date, socioeconomic advantage, and having a mother born in Australia. There was a strong, significant relationship between school starting age and early childhood development: each month of maturity corresponded to an increase of approximately 3% in the probability of scoring above the 25th percentile in all five AEDC domains. Independent of school starting age, children who were older in relation to their classroom peers had better development outcomes. The potential for initial age-related differences to impact later school outcomes warrants further longitudinal research.

Keywordsschool starting age; redshirting; relative age; early childhood development; administrative data
Year2019
JournalEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
Journal citation48, pp. 325 - 340
PublisherPergamon Press
ISSN0885-2006
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2019.01.008
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85067387095
Open accessOpen access
Page range325 - 340
Research GroupInstitute for Positive Psychology and Education
Publisher's version
License
Grant IDNHMRC/1061713
NHMRC/1016475
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
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Construct validity of the multidimensional structure of bullying and victimization :an application of exploratory structural equation modeling
Marsh, Herbert, Nagengast, Benjamin, Morin, Alexandre, Parada, Roberto, Craven, Rhonda and Hamilton, Linda. (2011) Construct validity of the multidimensional structure of bullying and victimization :an application of exploratory structural equation modeling. Journal of Educational Psychology. 103(3), pp. 701 - 732. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024122
The Big Fish down under :Examining moderators of the 'big-fish-little-pond' effect for Australia's high achievers
Seaton, Marjorie, Marsh, Herbert, Yeung, See and Craven, Rhonda. (2011) The Big Fish down under :Examining moderators of the 'big-fish-little-pond' effect for Australia's high achievers. Australian Journal of Education. 55(2), pp. 93 - 114. https://doi.org/10.1177/000494411105500202
Big Fish in a Big Pond :A study of academic self concept in first year medical students
Jackman, Kirsty, Wilson, Ian, Seaton, Marjorie and Craven, Rhonda. (2011) Big Fish in a Big Pond :A study of academic self concept in first year medical students. BMC Medical Education. 11(1), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-11-48
The Twofold Multidimensionality of Academic Self-Concept :Domain Specificity and Separation Between Competence and Affect Components
Arens, A, Yeung, See, Craven, Rhonda and Hasselhorn, Marcus. (2011) The Twofold Multidimensionality of Academic Self-Concept :Domain Specificity and Separation Between Competence and Affect Components. Journal of Educational Psychology. 103(4), pp. 970 - 981. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025047
Looking past positivity for indigenous Australian students :A preliminary investigation of racial discrimination and the illusion of resiliency in academia
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian, Denson, Nida and Craven, Rhonda. (2010) Looking past positivity for indigenous Australian students :A preliminary investigation of racial discrimination and the illusion of resiliency in academia. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 11
The utility of general self-esteem and domain-specific self-concepts: Their influence on indigenous and non-indigenous students' educational outcomes
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian, O'Rourke, Virginia and Craven, Rhonda G.. (2010) The utility of general self-esteem and domain-specific self-concepts: Their influence on indigenous and non-indigenous students' educational outcomes. Australian Journal of Education. 54(3), pp. 277 - 306. https://doi.org/10.1177/000494411005400305
Bangawarra'gumada - Strengthening the spirit: Causal modelling of academic self-concept and patterns of disengagement for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australian students
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian, Dillon, Anthony and Craven, Rhonda G.. (2010) Bangawarra'gumada - Strengthening the spirit: Causal modelling of academic self-concept and patterns of disengagement for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australian students. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education. 39(1), pp. 24 - 39. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1375/S1326011100000892
Factorial invariance testing and latent mean differences for the self-description questionnaire II (short version) with indigenous and non-indigenous Australian secondary school students
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian, Ha, My, Craven, Rhonda G. and Yeung, Alexander S.. (2010) Factorial invariance testing and latent mean differences for the self-description questionnaire II (short version) with indigenous and non-indigenous Australian secondary school students. International Journal of Testing. 10(1), pp. 47 - 79. https://doi.org/10.1080/15305050903352065
Big-fish-little-pond effect: Generalizability and moderation - two sides of the same coin
Seaton, Marjorie, Marsh, Herbert W. and Craven, Rhonda G.. (2010) Big-fish-little-pond effect: Generalizability and moderation - two sides of the same coin. American Educational Research Journal. 47(2), pp. 390 - 433. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831209350493
Taking our place: Aboriginal education and the story of the Koori centre at the University of Sydney
Cleverley, John and Mooney, Janet. (2010) Taking our place: Aboriginal education and the story of the Koori centre at the University of Sydney Sydney University Press.
Questioning the general self-esteem vaccine : General self-esteem, racial discrimination, and standardised achievement across indigenous and non-indigenous students
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian, Seaton, Marjorie, Nelson, Genevieve, Craven, Rhonda and Yeung, See. (2010) Questioning the general self-esteem vaccine : General self-esteem, racial discrimination, and standardised achievement across indigenous and non-indigenous students. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 20(1), pp. 1 - 21. https://doi.org/10.1375/ajgc.20.1.1
Validating racism and cultural respect: Testing the psychometric properties and educational impact of perceived discrimination and multiculturation for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian, O'Rourke, Virginia, Grant, Renee, Denson, Nida and Craven, Rhonda G.. (2010) Validating racism and cultural respect: Testing the psychometric properties and educational impact of perceived discrimination and multiculturation for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. Educational Research and Evaluation: an international journal on theory and practice. 16(6), pp. 471 - 493. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2010.550497
Elucidating the effects of traditional and cyber bullying experiences on multidimensional self-concept domains
Griezel, Lucy, Craven, Rhonda G., Yeung, Alexander S. and Finger, Linda R.. (2009) Elucidating the effects of traditional and cyber bullying experiences on multidimensional self-concept domains. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 12
Addressing the challenges faced by early adolescents: A mixed-method evaluation of the benefits of peer support
Ellis, Louise Anne, Marsh, Herbert Warren and Craven, Rhonda Gai. (2009) Addressing the challenges faced by early adolescents: A mixed-method evaluation of the benefits of peer support. American Journal of Community Psychology. 44(1-2), pp. 54 - 75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-009-9251-y
The literature
Craven, Rhonda Gai. (2009) The literature. In In K. Price and P. Hughes (Ed.). Stepping up: What works in pre-service teacher education pp. 1 - 6 Australian Curriculum Studies Association.
Earning its place as a pan-human theory: Universality of the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect across 41 culturally and economically diverse countries
Seaton, Marjorie, Marsh, Herbert Warren and Craven, Rhonda Gai. (2009) Earning its place as a pan-human theory: Universality of the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect across 41 culturally and economically diverse countries. Journal of Educational Psychology. 101(2), pp. 403 - 419. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013838
Linking learning to community for indigenous computing courses
Kutay, Cat and Mooney, Janet. (2008) Linking learning to community for indigenous computing courses. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education. 37, pp. 90 - 95. https://doi.org/10.1375/S1326011100000417
The beyond bullying secondary program: An innovative program empowering teachers to counteract bullying in schools
Parada, Roberto H., Craven, Rhonda Gai and Marsh, Herbert Warren. (2008) The beyond bullying secondary program: An innovative program empowering teachers to counteract bullying in schools. In In H.W. Marsh, R.G. Craven and D.M. McInerney (Ed.). Self-Processes, learning, and enabling human potential: Dynamic new approaches pp. 373 - 400 Information Age Publishing.
The failure of general self-esteem: Self-esteem's aggravating affect on racial discrimination's relation to achievement
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian, Nelson, Genevieve, Craven, Rhonda G., Yeung, Alexander Seeshing and Newey, Katrina. (2008) The failure of general self-esteem: Self-esteem's aggravating affect on racial discrimination's relation to achievement. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 16
Self-processes, learning, and enabling human potential
Craven, Rhonda Gai. (2008) Self-processes, learning, and enabling human potential. In In H.W. Marsh, R.G. Craven and D.M McInerney (Ed.). Self-processes, learning, and enabling human potential: Dynamic new approaches pp. 3 - 11 Information Age Publishing Inc.
Causal modeling of self-concept, job satisfaction, and retention of nurses
Cowin, Leanne S., Johnson, Maree, Craven, Rhonda Gai and Marsh, Herbert Warren. (2008) Causal modeling of self-concept, job satisfaction, and retention of nurses. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 45(10), pp. 1449 - 1459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2007.10.009
East meets West: An examination of the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect in Western and non-Western countries
Seaton, Marjorie, Craven, Rhonda Gai and Marsh, Herbert Warren. (2008) East meets West: An examination of the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect in Western and non-Western countries. In In H.W. Marsh, R.G. Craven and D.M. McInerney (Ed.). Self-Processes, learning, and enabling human potential: Dynamic new approaches pp. 353 - 372 Information Age Publishing.
A New multi-dimensional domain-specific motivation questionnaire: Measurement of young children's multi-faceted reading motivation
Hornery, Samantha, Craven, Rhonda G. and Yeung, Alexander S.. (2008) A New multi-dimensional domain-specific motivation questionnaire: Measurement of young children's multi-faceted reading motivation. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 14
Domain-specific school motivation
Magson, Natasha R., Craven, Rhonda G., Nelson, Genevieve F. and Yeung, Alexander S.. (2008) Domain-specific school motivation Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education.
The development of a multi-dimensional measure of cyber bullying
Griezel, Lucy, Craven, Rhonda G. and Yeung, Alexander S.. (2008) The development of a multi-dimensional measure of cyber bullying. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 13
An elucidation and comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian upper primary students' self-concepts
Craven, Rhonda G., Yeung, Alexander S. and Ali, Jinnat. (2008) An elucidation and comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian upper primary students' self-concepts. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 15
Adolescent peer relations instrument: Assessment of its reliability and construct validity when used with upper primary students
Finger, Linda, Yeung, Alexander S., Craven, Rhonda, Parada, Roberto and Newey, Katrina. (2008) Adolescent peer relations instrument: Assessment of its reliability and construct validity when used with upper primary students. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 9
One fish fits all? The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and individual differences in learning
Seaton, Marjorie, Marsh, Herbert Warren and Craven, Rhonda Gai. (2008) One fish fits all? The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and individual differences in learning. Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE). Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 19
The Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect stands up to critical scrutiny: Implications for theory, methodology, and future research
Marsh, Herbert Warren, Seaton, Marjorie, Trautwein, Ulrich, Ludtke, Oliver, Hau, K. T., O'Mara, Alison J. and Craven, Rhonda Gai. (2008) The Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect stands up to critical scrutiny: Implications for theory, methodology, and future research. Educational Psychology Review. 20(3), pp. 319 - 350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-008-9075-6
Opening the blind eye: Causal modelling of perceived discrimination and academic disengagement for Indigenous students
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian, Covic, Tanya, Yeung, Alexander Seeshing, Craven, Rhonda G. and O'Rourke, Virginia. (2008) Opening the blind eye: Causal modelling of perceived discrimination and academic disengagement for Indigenous students. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 16
One fish fits all? The big-fish-little-pond effect and individual differences in learning
Seaton, Marjorie, Marsh, Herbert W. and Craven, Rhonda G.. (2008) One fish fits all? The big-fish-little-pond effect and individual differences in learning. Australian Association for Research in Education. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 19
Examining the validity of motivational profiles across indigenous and non-indigenous students
Magson, Natasha R., Craven, Rhonda G., Nelson, Genevieve F. and Yeung, Alexander S.. (2008) Examining the validity of motivational profiles across indigenous and non-indigenous students. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference. Australia: Australian Association for Research in Education. pp. 1 - 9
Reciprocal Effects of Self-Concept and Performance From a Multidimensional Perspective: Beyond Seductive Pleasure and Unidimensional Perspectives
Marsh, Herb and Craven, Rhonda. (2006) Reciprocal Effects of Self-Concept and Performance From a Multidimensional Perspective: Beyond Seductive Pleasure and Unidimensional Perspectives. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 1(2), pp. 133 - 163. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00010.x
Multidimensional self-concept structure for preadolescents with mild intellectual disabilities: A hybrid multigroup-MIMC approach to factorial invariance and latent mean differences
Marsh, Herb, Tracey, Danielle and Craven, Rhonda. (2006) Multidimensional self-concept structure for preadolescents with mild intellectual disabilities: A hybrid multigroup-MIMC approach to factorial invariance and latent mean differences. Educational and Psychological Measurement: devoted to the development and application of measures of individual differences. 66(5), pp. 795 - 818. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164405285910
Do self-concept interventions make a difference? A synergistic blend of construct validation and meta-analysis
O'Mara, Alison J., Marsh, Herb, Craven, Rhonda and Debus, R. (2006) Do self-concept interventions make a difference? A synergistic blend of construct validation and meta-analysis. Educational Psychologist. 41(3), pp. 181 - 206. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4103_4
A longitudinal study of student and experienced nurses' self-concept.
Cowin, Leanne, Craven, Rhonda, Johnson, Maree and Marsh, Herb. (2006) A longitudinal study of student and experienced nurses' self-concept. Collegian. 13(3), pp. 25 - 31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1322-7696(08)60529-6
Evaluation of the Big-Two-Factor theory of academic motivation orientations: An evaluation of jingle-jangle fallacies
Marsh, Herb, Craven, Rhonda, Hinkley, John W. and Debus, R. (2003) Evaluation of the Big-Two-Factor theory of academic motivation orientations: An evaluation of jingle-jangle fallacies. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 38(2), pp. 189 - 224. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327906MBR3802_3
How do preschool children feel about themselves? Unraveling measurement and multidimensional self-concept structure.
Marsh, Herb, Ellis, Louise and Craven, Rhonda. (2002) How do preschool children feel about themselves? Unraveling measurement and multidimensional self-concept structure. Developmental Psychology. 38(3), pp. 376 - 393. https://doi.org/10.1037//0012-1649.38.3.376
Diffusion effects: Control group contamination threats to the validity of teacher-administered interventions
Craven, Rhonda, Marsh, Herb, Debus, R. and Jayasinghe, U W.. (2001) Diffusion effects: Control group contamination threats to the validity of teacher-administered interventions. Journal of Educational Psychology. 93(3), pp. 639 - 645. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.93.3.639
Gifted, streamed and mixed-ability programs for gifted students: Impact on self-concept, motivation, and achievement
Craven, Rhonda, Marsh, Herb and Print, Murray. (2000) Gifted, streamed and mixed-ability programs for gifted students: Impact on self-concept, motivation, and achievement. Australian Journal of Education. 44(1), pp. 51 - 75. https://doi.org/10.1177/000494410004400106
Separation of competency and affect components of multiple dimensions of academic self-concept: A developmental perspective
Marsh, Herb, Craven, Rhonda and Debus, R.. (1999) Separation of competency and affect components of multiple dimensions of academic self-concept: A developmental perspective. Merrill - Palmer Quarterly: journal of developmental psychology. 45(4), pp. 567 - 601.
Structure, Stability, and Development of Young Children's Self-Concepts: A Multicohort-Multioccasion Study
Marsh, Herb, Craven, Rhonda and Debus, R.. (1998) Structure, Stability, and Development of Young Children's Self-Concepts: A Multicohort-Multioccasion Study. Child Development. 69(4), pp. 1030 - 1053. https://doi.org/10.2307/1132361
Problems in the Application of Structural Equation Modeling: Comment on Randhawa, Beamer, and Lundberg (1993)
Marsh, Herb, Hau, Kit Tai, Roche, Lawrence A., Craven, Rhonda, Balla, John R. and McInerney, Valentina. (1994) Problems in the Application of Structural Equation Modeling: Comment on Randhawa, Beamer, and Lundberg (1993). Journal of Educational Psychology. 86(3), pp. 457 - 462. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.86.3.457
Overcoming Problems in Confirmatory Factor Analyses of MTMM Data: The Correlated Uniqueness Model and Factorial Invariance
Marsh, Herb, Byrne, Barbara M. and Craven, Rhonda. (1992) Overcoming Problems in Confirmatory Factor Analyses of MTMM Data: The Correlated Uniqueness Model and Factorial Invariance. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 27(4), pp. 489 - 507. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2704_1
Self-Concepts of Young Children 5 to 8 Years of Age: Measurement and Multidimensional Structure
Marsh, Herb, Craven, Rhonda and Debus, R.. (1991) Self-Concepts of Young Children 5 to 8 Years of Age: Measurement and Multidimensional Structure. Journal of Educational Psychology. 83(3), pp. 377 - 392. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.83.3.377
Effects of Internally Focused Feedback and Attributional Feedback on Enhancement of Academic Self-Concept
Craven, Rhonda, Marsh, Herb and Debus, R.. (1991) Effects of Internally Focused Feedback and Attributional Feedback on Enhancement of Academic Self-Concept. Journal of Educational Psychology. 83(1), pp. 17 - 27. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.83.1.17
Self-Other Agreement on Multiple Dimensions of Preadolescent Self-Concept: Inferences by Teachers, Mothers, and Fathers
Marsh, Herb and Craven, Rhonda. (1991) Self-Other Agreement on Multiple Dimensions of Preadolescent Self-Concept: Inferences by Teachers, Mothers, and Fathers. Journal of Educational Psychology. 83(3), pp. 393 - 404. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.83.3.393