Exercise as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the prevention of cardiovascular dysfunction in breast cancer patients

Journal article


Howden, Erin J., Bigaran, Ashley, Beaudry, Rhys, Fraser, Steve, Selig, Steve, Foulkes, Steve, Antill, Yoland, Nightingale, Sophie, Loi, Sherene, Haykowsky, Mark J. and La Gerche, Andre´. (2019). Exercise as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the prevention of cardiovascular dysfunction in breast cancer patients. European Journal of Preventative Cardiology. 26(3), pp. 305 - 315. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487318811181
AuthorsHowden, Erin J., Bigaran, Ashley, Beaudry, Rhys, Fraser, Steve, Selig, Steve, Foulkes, Steve, Antill, Yoland, Nightingale, Sophie, Loi, Sherene, Haykowsky, Mark J. and La Gerche, Andre´
Abstract

Background Anthracycline chemotherapy may be associated with decreased cardiac function and functional capacity measured as the peak oxygen uptake during exercise (V·O2 peak). We sought to determine (a) whether a structured exercise training program would attenuate reductions in V·O2 peak and (b) whether exercise cardiac imaging is a more sensitive marker of cardiac injury than the current standard of care resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods Twenty-eight patients with early stage breast cancer undergoing anthracycline chemotherapy were able to choose between exercise training (mean ± SD age 47 ± 9 years, n = 14) or usual care (mean ± SD age 53 ± 9 years, n = 14). Measurements performed before and after anthracycline chemotherapy included cardiopulmonary exercise testing to determine V·O2 peak and functional disability (V·O2 peak < 18 ml/min/kg), resting echocardiography (LVEF and global longitudinal strain), cardiac biomarkers (troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide) and exercise cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine stroke volume and peak cardiac output. The exercise training group completed 2 × 60 minute supervised exercise sessions per week. Results Decreases in V·O2 peak during chemotherapy were attenuated with exercise training (15 vs. 4% reduction, P = 0.010) and fewer participants in the exercise training group met the functional disability criteria after anthracycline chemotherapy compared with those in the usual care group (7 vs. 50%, P = 0.01). Compared with the baseline, the peak exercise heart rate was higher and the stroke volume was lower after chemotherapy (P = 0.003 and P = 0.06, respectively). There was a reduction in resting LVEF (from 63 ± 5 to 60 ± 5%, P = 0.002) and an increase in troponin (from 2.9 ± 1.3 to 28.5 ± 22.4 ng/mL, P < 0.0001), but no difference was observed between the usual care and exercise training group. The baseline peak cardiac output was the strongest predictor of functional capacity after anthracycline chemotherapy in a model containing age and resting cardiac function (LVEF and global longitudinal strain). Conclusions The peak exercise cardiac output can identify patients at risk of chemotherapy-induced functional disability, whereas current clinical standards are unhelpful. Functional disability can be prevented with exercise training.

Keywordsexercise; survivorship; heart failure; cardiorespiratory fitness; cardiotoxicity
Year2019
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventative Cardiology
Journal citation26 (3), pp. 305 - 315
PublisherSage Publications Ltd.
ISSN2047-4873
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487318811181
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85060151227
Page range305 - 315
Research GroupMary MacKillop Institute for Health Research
Publisher's version
File Access Level
Controlled
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
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