Non-knee-spanning muscles contribute to tibiofemoral shear as well as valgus and rotational joint reaction moments during unanticipated sidestep cutting

Journal article


Maniar, Nirav, Schache, Anthony, Sritharan, Prasanna and Opar, David. (2018) Non-knee-spanning muscles contribute to tibiofemoral shear as well as valgus and rotational joint reaction moments during unanticipated sidestep cutting. Scientific Reports. 8(1), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-19098-9
AuthorsManiar, Nirav, Schache, Anthony, Sritharan, Prasanna and Opar, David
Abstract

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a burdensome condition due to potential surgical requirements and increased risk of long term debilitation. Previous studies indicate that muscle forces play an important role in the development of ligamentous loading, yet these studies have typically used cadaveric models considering only the knee-spanning quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscle groups. Using a musculoskeletal modelling approach, we investigated how lower-limb muscles produce and oppose key tibiofemoral reaction forces and moments during the weight acceptance phase of unanticipated sidestep cutting. Muscles capable of opposing (or controlling the magnitude of) the anterior shear force and the external valgus moment at the knee are thought to be have the greatest potential for protecting the anterior cruciate ligament from injury. We found the best muscles for generating posterior shear to be the soleus, biceps femoris long head and medial hamstrings, providing up to 173N, 111N and 77N of force directly opposing the anterior shear force. The valgus moment was primarily opposed by the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus and piriformis, with these muscles providing contributions of up to 32 Nm, 19 Nm and 21 Nm towards a knee varus moment, respectively. Our findings highlight key muscle targets for ACL preventative and rehabilitative interventions.

Keywordsmuscles; tibiofemoral shear; rotational joint
Year2018
JournalScientific Reports
Journal citation8 (1), pp. 1 - 10
PublisherNature Publishing Group
ISSN2045-2322
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-19098-9
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85041639936
Open accessOpen access
Page range1 - 10
Research GroupSports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies (SPRINT) Research Centre
Publisher's version
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
Permalink -

https://acuresearchbank.acu.edu.au/item/8v09q/non-knee-spanning-muscles-contribute-to-tibiofemoral-shear-as-well-as-valgus-and-rotational-joint-reaction-moments-during-unanticipated-sidestep-cutting

  • 2
    total views
  • 2
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month
These values are for the period from 19th October 2020, when this repository was created.

Export as

Related outputs

Lower-limb muscle function during sidestep cutting
Maniar, Nirav, Schache, Anthony G., Cole, Michael H. and Opar, David A.. (2019) Lower-limb muscle function during sidestep cutting. Journal of Biomechanics. 82, pp. 186 - 192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.10.021
Lower-limb muscle function during sidestep cutting
Maniar, Nirav, Schache, Anthony G., Cole, Michael H. and Opar, David. (2019) Lower-limb muscle function during sidestep cutting. Journal of Biomechanics. 82, pp. 186 - 192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.10.021
A novel apparatus to measure knee flexor strength during various hamstring exercises: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Hickey, Jack T., Hickey, Peter F., Maniar, Nirav, Timmins, Ryan G., Williams, Morgan D., Pitcher, Christian A. and Opar, David A.. (2018) A novel apparatus to measure knee flexor strength during various hamstring exercises: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 48(2), pp. 72 - 79. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2018.7634
An evidence-based framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring injury
Bourne, Matthew N., Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Opar, David, Pizzari, Tania, Ruddy, Joshua D., Sims, Casey, Williams, Morgan D. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2018) An evidence-based framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring injury. Sports Medicine. 48(2), pp. 251 - 267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0796-x
A novel apparatus to measure knee flexor strength during various hamstring exercises: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Hickey, Jack T., Hickey, Peter F., Maniar, Nirav, Timmins, Ryan G., Williams, Morgan D., Pitcher, Christian A. and Opar, David A.. (2018) A novel apparatus to measure knee flexor strength during various hamstring exercises: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 48(2), pp. 72 - 80. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2018.7634
Non-knee-spanning muscles contribute to tibiofemoral shear as well as valgus and rotational joint reaction moments during unanticipated sidestep cutting
Maniar, Nirav, Schache, Anthony G., Sritharan, Prasanna and Opar, David. (2018) Non-knee-spanning muscles contribute to tibiofemoral shear as well as valgus and rotational joint reaction moments during unanticipated sidestep cutting. Scientific Reports. 8(2501), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-19098-9
Impact of exercise selection on hamstring muscle activation
Bourne, Matthew N., Williams, Morgan, Opar, David, Najjar, Aiman Al, Kerr, Graham K. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2017) Impact of exercise selection on hamstring muscle activation. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51, pp. 1021 - 1028. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095739
Effect of prior injury on changes to biceps femoris architecture across an Australian football league season
Timmins, Ryan G., Bourne, Matthew N., Hickey, Jack T., Maniar, Nirav, Tofari, Paul J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A.. (2017) Effect of prior injury on changes to biceps femoris architecture across an Australian football league season. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49(10), pp. 2102 - 2109. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001333
Muscle force contributions to knee joint loading
Maniar, Nirav. (2017) Muscle force contributions to knee joint loading [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.26199/5cb7ada848286
Impact of the Nordic hamstring and hip extension exercises on hamstring architecture and morphology: Implications for injury prevention
Bourne, Matthew N., Duhig, Steven J., Timmins, Ryan, Williams, Morgan, Opar, David, Najjar, Aiman Al, Kerr, Graham K. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2017) Impact of the Nordic hamstring and hip extension exercises on hamstring architecture and morphology: Implications for injury prevention. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51(5). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096130
Hamstring myoelectrical activity during three different kettlebell swing exercises
Del Monte, Michael J., Opar, David, Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Ross, James, Keogh, Justin WL and Lorenzen, Christian. (2017) Hamstring myoelectrical activity during three different kettlebell swing exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002254
There is strength in numbers for muscle injuries it is time to establish an international collaborative registry
Van Dyke, Nicol, Van der Made, Anne D., Timmins, Ryan, Opar, David and Tol, Johannes L.. (2017) There is strength in numbers for muscle injuries it is time to establish an international collaborative registry. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097318
Effect of prior injury on changes to biceps femoris architecture across an Australian football league season
Timmins, Ryan, Bourne, Matthew N., Hickey, Jack, Maniar, Nirav, Tofari, Paul, Williams, Morgan and Opar, David. (2017) Effect of prior injury on changes to biceps femoris architecture across an Australian football league season. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001333
Impact of exercise selection on hamstring muscle activation
Bourne, Matthew N., Williams, Morgan, Opar, David, Najjar, Aiman A., Kerr, Graham and Shield, Anthony J.. (2017) Impact of exercise selection on hamstring muscle activation. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51(13), pp. 1021 - 1028. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095739
Criteria for progressing rehabilitation and determining return to play clearance following hamstring strain injury: A systematic review
Hickey, Jack, Timmins, Ryan G., Maniar, Nirav, Williams, Morgan and Opar, David. (2017) Criteria for progressing rehabilitation and determining return to play clearance following hamstring strain injury: A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 47(7). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0667-x
Predictive modeling of hamstring strain injuries in elite Australian footballers
Ruddy, Joshua, Shield, Anthony J., Maniar, Nirav, Williams, Morgan D., Duhig, Steven J., Timmins, Ryan, Hickey, Jack, Bourne, Matthew N. and Opar, David. (2017) Predictive modeling of hamstring strain injuries in elite Australian footballers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 50(5), pp. 1 - 30. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001527
Running exposure is associated with the risk of hamstring strain injury in elite Australian footballers
Ruddy, Joshua D., Pollard, Christopher, Timmins, Ryan, Williams, Morgan, Shield, Anthony and Opar, David. (2017) Running exposure is associated with the risk of hamstring strain injury in elite Australian footballers. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096777
Drop punt kicking induces eccentric knee flexor weakness associated with reductions in hamstring electromyographic activity
Duhig, Steven J., Williams, Morgan, Minett, Geoffrey M., Opar, David and Shield, Anthony J.. (2017) Drop punt kicking induces eccentric knee flexor weakness associated with reductions in hamstring electromyographic activity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(6), pp. 595 - 599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.09.006
Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training
Timmins, Ryan G., Ruddy, Joshua D., Presland, Joel, Maniar, Nirav, Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David. (2016) Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 48(3), pp. 499 - 508. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000795
Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury
Bourne, Matthew N., Opar, David, Williams, Morgan, Najjar, Aiman Al and Shield, Anthony J.. (2016) Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 26(6). https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12494
Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maniar, Nirav, Shielf, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan, Timmins, Ryan G. and Opar, David. (2016) Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(15). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095311
Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk
Duhig, Steven, Shield, Anthony, Opar, David, Gabbett, Tim, Ferguson, Cameron and Williams, Morgan. (2016) Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(24). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095679
Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maniar, Nirav, Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan Gregory and Opar, David A.. (2016) Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(15), pp. 909 - 920. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095311
Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training
Timmins, Ryan G., Ruddy, Joshua D., Presland, Joel, Maniar, Nirav and Williams, Morgan. (2016) Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 48(3). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000795
Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation
Tofari, Paul J., Opar, David, Kemp, Justin Guy, Billaut, Francois and Cormack, Stuart John. (2016) Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation. Muscle & Nerve. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.24926
Architectural adaptations of muscle to training and injury: A narrative review outlining the contributions by fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness
Timmins, Ryan G., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D., Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2016) Architectural adaptations of muscle to training and injury: A narrative review outlining the contributions by fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(23). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094881
Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk
Duhig, Steven, Shield, Anthony J., Opar, David, Gabbett, Timothy James, Ferguson, Cameron and Williams, Morgan. (2016) Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(24), pp. 1536 - 1540. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095679
Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players
Chalker, Wade J., Shield, Anthony J., Opar, David and Keogh, Justin W. L.. (2016) Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players. PeerJ. 4, pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1594
Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury
Bourne, Matthew N., Opar, David, Williams, Morgan David, Al Najjar, Aiman and Shield, Anthony J.. (2016) Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 26(6), pp. 666 - 674. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12494
What do submarines have in common with diabetes?
Rio, Ebony, Timmins, Ryan Gregory and Opar, David. (2016) What do submarines have in common with diabetes? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(16), pp. 955 - 956. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096646
The juxtaposition of science and medicine in sport. Can we all play together nicely?
Opar, David and Rio, Ebony. (2015) The juxtaposition of science and medicine in sport. Can we all play together nicely? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 49(10), pp. 640 - 641. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094819
Eccentric knee flexor strength and risk of hamstring injuries in Rugby Union: A prospective study
Bourne, Matthew, Opar, David, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony. (2015) Eccentric knee flexor strength and risk of hamstring injuries in Rugby Union: A prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(11), pp. 2663 - 2670. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515599633
Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers
Opar, David, Williams, Morgan, Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Hickey, Jack, Duhig, Steven and Shield, Anthony. (2015) Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(4), pp. 857 - 865. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000465
Acute injuries in track and field athletes : A 3-year observational study at the penn relays carnival with epidemiology and medical coverage implications
Opar, David, Drezner, Jonathan, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Webner, David, Sennett, Brian, Kapur, Rahul, Cohen, Marc, Ulager, James, Cafengiu, Ana and Cronholm, Peter F. (2015) Acute injuries in track and field athletes : A 3-year observational study at the penn relays carnival with epidemiology and medical coverage implications. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(4), pp. 816 - 822. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514562553
Comparison of anthropometry, upper body strength and lower body power characteristics in different levels of Australian Football players
Bilsborough, Johann, Greenway, Kate, Opar, David, Livingstone, Steuart, Cordy, Justin, Bird, S. and Coutts, Aaron. (2015) Comparison of anthropometry, upper body strength and lower body power characteristics in different levels of Australian Football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(3), pp. 826 - 834. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000682
The impact of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during pre-season training in elite Australian footballers
Opar, David, Williams, Morgan, Timmins, Ryan, Hickey, Jack, Duhig, Steven and Shield, Anthony. (2015) The impact of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during pre-season training in elite Australian footballers. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514556638
Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2015) Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(5), pp. 905 - 913. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000507
The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature
Maniar, Nirav, Bach, Aaron, Stewart, Ian and Costello, Joseph. (2015) The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature. Journal of Thermal Biology. 49-50, pp. 33 - 38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2015.01.008
Eccentric knee flexor strength and risk of hamstring injuries in Rugby Union: A prospective study
Bourne, Matthew, Opar, David, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony. (2015) Eccentric knee flexor strength and risk of hamstring injuries in Rugby Union: A prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(11), pp. 2663 - 2670. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515599633
The effect of previous hamstring strain injuries on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers
Opar, David, Williams, Morgan, Timmins, Ryan, Hickey, Jack, Duhig, Steven and Shield, Anthony. (2015) The effect of previous hamstring strain injuries on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(2), pp. 377 - 384. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514556638
Is There a Potential Relationship Between Prior Hamstring Strain Injury and Increased Risk for Future Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury?
Opar, David and Serpell, Benjamin. (2014) Is There a Potential Relationship Between Prior Hamstring Strain Injury and Increased Risk for Future Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury? Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 95(2), pp. 401 - 405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.07.028
The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes
Bilsborough, Johann, Greenway, Kate, Opar, David, Livingstone, Steuart, Cordy, Justin and Coutts, Aaron. (2014) The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences. 32(19), pp. 1821 - 1828. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.926380
Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running
Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Opar, David, Williams, Morgan, Schache, Anthony, Dear, Nuala and Shield, Anthony. (2014) Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4), pp. e299 - e305. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12171
Acute hamstring strain injury in track-and-field athletes: A 3-year observational study at the Penn Relay Carnival
Opar, David, Drezner, Jonathan, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Webner, David, Sennett, Brian, Kapur, Rahul, Cohen, M., Ulager, James and Cafengiu, Ana. (2014) Acute hamstring strain injury in track-and-field athletes: A 3-year observational study at the Penn Relay Carnival. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4), pp. e254 - e259. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12159
Is there a potential relationship between prior hamstring strain injury and increased risk for future anterior cruciate ligament injury?
Opar, David and Serpell, Benjamin. (2014) Is there a potential relationship between prior hamstring strain injury and increased risk for future anterior cruciate ligament injury? Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 95(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.07.028
Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running
Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Opar, David, Williams, Morgan, Schache, Anthony, Dear, Nuala and Shield, Anthony J.. (2014) Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12171
The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League
Hickey, Jack, Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A. (2014) The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48(8), pp. 729-730. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092884
Acute hamstring strain injury in track-and-field athletes: A 3-year observational study at the Penn Relay Carnival
Opar, David, Drezner, Jonathan, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Webner, David, Sennett, Brian, Kapur, Rahul, Cohen, M., Ulager, James and Cafengiu, Ana. (2014) Acute hamstring strain injury in track-and-field athletes: A 3-year observational study at the Penn Relay Carnival. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12159
A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Opar, David, Piatowski, Timothy, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony J.. (2013) A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 43(9), pp. 636 - 640. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2013.4837
The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence
Fyfe, Jackson, Opar, David, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony. (2013) The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3), pp. 523 - 530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.12.006
Knee flexor stength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David, Williams, Morgan, Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Dear, Nuala and Shield, Anthony. (2013) Knee flexor stength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.11.004
A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Opar, David, Piatkowski, Timothy, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony. (2013) A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 43(9), pp. 636 - 640. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2013.4837
Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Dear, Nuala M. (2013) Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 41(1), pp. 116-125. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512462809
The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence
Fyfe, Jackson, Opar, David, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony. (2013) The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.12.006
Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Dear, Nuala M. and Shield, Anthony J. (2013) Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3), pp. 696-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.11.004
Hamstring strain injuries : Factors that lead to injury and re-injury
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D. and Shield, Anthony J. (2012) Hamstring strain injuries : Factors that lead to injury and re-injury. Sports Medicine. 42(3), pp. 209-226. https://doi.org/10.2165/11594800-000000000-00000