Common core writing and language standards and aligned state assessments: a national survey of teacher beliefs and attitudes

Journal article


Troia, Gary A. and Graham, Steve. (2016) Common core writing and language standards and aligned state assessments: a national survey of teacher beliefs and attitudes. Reading and Writing. 29(9), pp. 1719 - 1743. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9650-z
AuthorsTroia, Gary A. and Graham, Steve
Abstract

A random sample of 482 teachers in grades 3 through 8 from across the United States were surveyed about (a) their perceptions of the version of the Common Core writing and language standards adopted by their state and their state’s writing assessment, (b) their preparation to teach writing, and (c) their self-efficacy beliefs for teaching writing. Regardless of grade, a majority of teachers believed that the adopted standards are more rigorous than prior standards, provide clear expectations for students that can be straightforwardly translated into activities and lessons, and have pushed them to address writing more often. However, many surveyed felt the new writing and language standards are too numerous to cover, omit key aspects of writing development, and may be inappropriate for struggling writers. Moreover, most did not feel that professional development efforts have been sufficient to achieve successful implementation, and nearly one in five respondents was not familiar with the standards. The respondents were generally less sanguine regarding their state’s writing test, with elementary teachers even less positive than middle school teachers on some aspects, though nearly a third were unfamiliar with their state test. A majority believed state writing tests, though more rigorous than prior tests, fail to address important aspects of writing development, do not accommodate the needs of students with diverse abilities, and require more time than is available to prepare students. Additionally, many teachers believed professional development efforts have been insufficient to help them understand measurement properties of the assessments and how to use test data to identify students’ writing needs. Teachers who were better prepared to teach writing and who held more positive personal teaching efficacy beliefs for writing exhibited generally more positive perceptions of their state’s standards. In contrast, only teacher efficacy beliefs made a unique contribution to the survey respondents’ attitudes and beliefs about their state’s writing test.

Keywordssurvey; teacher attitudes; state writing standards; state writing assessments
Year2016
JournalReading and Writing
Journal citation29 (9), pp. 1719 - 1743
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
ISSN0922-4777
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9650-z
Scopus EID2-s2.0-84965022383
Page range1719 - 1743
Research GroupInstitute for Learning Sciences and Teacher Education (ILSTE)
Publisher's version
File Access Level
Controlled
Place of publicationNetherlands
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Kiuhara, Sharlene, O'Neill, Robert, Hawken, Leanne and Graham, Steve. (2012) The Effectiveness of Teaching 10th-Grade Students STOP, AIMS, and DARE for Planning and Drafting Persuasive Text. Exceptional Children. 78(3), pp. 335 - 355.
Strategies for improving student outcomes in written expression
Mason, Linda H., Harris, Karen and Graham, Steve. (2012) Strategies for improving student outcomes in written expression. In Research-Based Strategies For Improving Outcomes in Academics pp. 83 - 94 Pearson Education.
Teaching elementary school students to be effective writers
Graham, Steve, Bollinger, Alisha, Olson, Carol Booth, D'Aoust, Catherine, MacArthur, Charles, McCutchen, Deborah and Olinghouse, Natalie. (2012) Teaching elementary school students to be effective writers United States of America: Institute of Education Sciences.
The role of strategies, knowledge, will, and skills in a 30 year program of research (with homage to Hayes, Fayol, and Boscolo)
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2012) The role of strategies, knowledge, will, and skills in a 30 year program of research (with homage to Hayes, Fayol, and Boscolo). In In V. W. Berninger (Ed.). Past, Present, and Future Contributions of Cognitive Writing Research to Cognitive Psychology pp. 177 - 196 Psychology Press.
Practice-Based Professional Development for Self-Regulated Strategies Development in Writing: A Randomized Controlled Study
Harris, Karen, Lane, Kathleen, Graham, Steve, Driscoll, Steven, Sandmel, Karin, Brindle, Mary and Schatschneider, Chris. (2012) Practice-Based Professional Development for Self-Regulated Strategies Development in Writing: A Randomized Controlled Study. Journal of Teacher Education: the journal of policy, practice, and research in teacher education. 63(2), pp. 103 - 119. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487111429005
Tier 1, Teacher Implemented self-regulated stratergy development for students with and without behavioural challenges: A randomized controlled Trial
Harris, Karen, Lane, Kathleen, Driscoll, Steven, Graham, Steve, Wilson, Kristen, Sandmel, Karin, Brindle, Mary and Schatschneider, Chris. (2012) Tier 1, Teacher Implemented self-regulated stratergy development for students with and without behavioural challenges: A randomized controlled Trial. The Elementary School Journal. 113(2), pp. 160 - 191. https://doi.org/10.1086/667403
Writing Difficulties
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2011) Writing Difficulties. In In Anne McGill-Franzen and Richard L. Allington (Ed.). Handbook of Reading Disability Research pp. 232 - 241 Routledge.
Self-regulated strategy development at Tier 2 for second-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties :A randomized controlled trial
Lane, Kathleen, Harris, Karen, Graham, Steve, Driscoll, Steven, Sandmel, Karin, Morphy, Paul, Hebert, Michael, House, Emily and Schatschneider, Christopher. (2011) Self-regulated strategy development at Tier 2 for second-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties :A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. 4(4), pp. 322 - 353. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2011.558987
Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students With Writing Difficulties
Mason, Linda, Harris, Karen and Graham, Steve. (2011) Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students With Writing Difficulties. Theory into Practice. 50(1), pp. 20 - 27. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2011.534922
Throw 'em Out or Make 'em Better? State and District High-Stakes Writing Assessments
Graham, Steve, Hebert, Michael and Harris, Karen. (2011) Throw 'em Out or Make 'em Better? State and District High-Stakes Writing Assessments. Focus on Exceptional Children. 44(1), pp. 1 - 12.
The Process Writing Approach :a meta-analysis
Sandmel, Karin and Graham, Steve. (2011) The Process Writing Approach :a meta-analysis. The Journal of Educational Research. 104(6), pp. 396 - 407. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2010.488703
Success and failure with tier-2 SRSD for timed-writing tests among second through fifth-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties :implications for evidence-based practice
Sandmel, Karin, Wilson, Kristen D., Harris, Karen, Lane, Kathleen Lynne, Graham, Steve, Oakes, Wendy P., Kiuhara, Sharlene A. and Steinbrecher, Trish D.. (2011) Success and failure with tier-2 SRSD for timed-writing tests among second through fifth-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties :implications for evidence-based practice. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities. 24, pp. 251 - 293. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0735-004X(2011)0000024012
Success and failure with Tier 2 SRSD for timed writing tests among 2nd and 5th grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties: Implications for evidence-based practices
Sandmel, Karin, Wilson, Kristen D., Harris, Karen, Lane, Kathleen Lynne, Graham, Steve, Oakes, Wendy P., Kiuhara, Sharlene A. and Steinbrecher, Trish D.. (2011) Success and failure with Tier 2 SRSD for timed writing tests among 2nd and 5th grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties: Implications for evidence-based practices. In In T. E. Scruggs and M. A. Mastropieri (Ed.). Assessment and intervention pp. 251 - 294 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Writing to Read :a meta-analysis of the impact of writing and writing instruction on reading
Graham, Steve and Hebert, Michael. (2011) Writing to Read :a meta-analysis of the impact of writing and writing instruction on reading. Harvard Educational Review. 81(4), pp. 710 - 744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.09.006
Informing Writing: The Benefits of Formative Assessment - A report from Carnegie Corporation of New York
Graham, Steve, Harris, Karen and Hebert, Michael. (2011) Informing Writing: The Benefits of Formative Assessment - A report from Carnegie Corporation of New York Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Teaching writing strategies in the classroom
Graham, Steve. (2011) Teaching writing strategies in the classroom. In In J. Richards and C. Lasssonde (Ed.). Writing strategies for all primary students: Scaffolding independent writing with differentiated mini-lessons, grades K-3 Jossey-Bass.
Writing to read: evidence for how writing can improve reading: a report from Carnegie Corporation of New York
Graham, Steve and Hebert, Michael. (2010) Writing to read: evidence for how writing can improve reading: a report from Carnegie Corporation of New York New York, USA: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Self-Regulated Strategies Development for Persuasive Writing in Tandem With Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Support : Effects for Second-Grade Students With Behavioral and Writing Difficulties
Little, M, Lane, Kathleen, Harris, Karen, Graham, Steve, Story, Mary and Sandmel, Karin. (2010) Self-Regulated Strategies Development for Persuasive Writing in Tandem With Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Support : Effects for Second-Grade Students With Behavioral and Writing Difficulties. Behavioral Disorders. 35(2), pp. 157 - 179.
Teaching writing to elementary students in grades 4-6: A national survey
Gilbert, Jennifer and Graham, Steve. (2010) Teaching writing to elementary students in grades 4-6: A national survey. The Elementary School Journal. 110(4), pp. 494 - 518. https://doi.org/10.1086/651193
Writing to Read :Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading - A Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York
Graham, Steve and Hebert, Michael. (2010) Writing to Read :Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading - A Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York United States of America: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Evidence-based writing practices for Tiers 1, 2, and 3
Olinghouse, Natalie G., Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2010) Evidence-based writing practices for Tiers 1, 2, and 3. In Interventions for achievement and behavior in a three-tier model including RTI pp. 553 - 570 National Association of School Psychologists.
Story writing: The effects of self-regulated strategy development for second-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties
Lane, Kathleen Lynne, Graham, Steve, Harris, Karen, Little, M. Annette, Sandmel, Karin and Brindle, Mary. (2010) Story writing: The effects of self-regulated strategy development for second-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties. The Journal of Special Education. 44(2), pp. 107 - 128. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466908331044
Metacognition and strategies instruction in writing
Harris, Karen, Santangelo, Tanya and Graham, Steve. (2010) Metacognition and strategies instruction in writing. In In H S Waters and W Schneider (Ed.). pp. 226 - 256 Guilford.
With a little help from my friends (and Mark Twain too): Musings and farewells
Graham, Steve. (2010) With a little help from my friends (and Mark Twain too): Musings and farewells. Exceptional Children. 76(4), pp. 389 - 393. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440291007600401
Writing to Read :Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading - A Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York
Graham, Steve and Hebert, Michael. (2010) Writing to Read :Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading - A Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York United States of America: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Self-Regulated Strategy Development in Writing: Premises, Evolution and the Future
Harris, Karen and Graham, Steve. (2009) Self-Regulated Strategy Development in Writing: Premises, Evolution and the Future. British Journal of Educational Psychology.
Teaching writing to high school students: A national survey
Kiuhara, Sharlene, Graham, Steve and Hawken, Leanne S.. (2009) Teaching writing to high school students: A national survey. Journal of Educational Psychology. 101(1), pp. 136 - 160. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013097
Almost 30 years of writing research: Making sense of it all with The Wrath of Khan
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2009) Almost 30 years of writing research: Making sense of it all with The Wrath of Khan. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice. 24(2), pp. 58 - 68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2009.01277.x
The relationship between the discourse knowledge and the writing performance of elementary-grade students
Olinghouse, Natalie G. and Graham, Steve. (2009) The relationship between the discourse knowledge and the writing performance of elementary-grade students. Journal of Educational Psychology. 101(1), pp. 37 - 50. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013462
Teaching composing to students with learning disabilities: Scientifically supported recommendations
Graham, Steve, Olinghouse, Natalie G. and Harris, Karen R.. (2009) Teaching composing to students with learning disabilities: Scientifically supported recommendations. In In Gary A. Troia (Ed.). Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices pp. 165 - 186 Guilford Press.
Teaching young students strategies for planning and drafting stories: The impact of self-regulated strategy development
Tracy, Brenda, Reid, Robert R. and Graham, Steve. (2009) Teaching young students strategies for planning and drafting stories: The impact of self-regulated strategy development. The Journal of Educational Research. 102(5), pp. 323 - 331. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.102.5.323-332
How do primary grade teachers teach handwriting? A National Survey
Graham, Steve, Harris, Karen, Mason, Linda H. and Fink-Chorzempa, Barbara. (2008) How do primary grade teachers teach handwriting? A National Survey. Reading and Writing.
A meta-analysis of single subject design writing intervention research
Rogers, Leslie Ann and Graham, Steve. (2008) A meta-analysis of single subject design writing intervention research. Journal of Educational Psychology. 100(4), pp. 879 - 906. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.4.879
Self-regulated strategy development in writing: Going beyond NLEs to a more balanced approach
Harris, Karen, Santangelo, Tanya and Graham, Steve. (2008) Self-regulated strategy development in writing: Going beyond NLEs to a more balanced approach. Instructional Science.
Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development to Support Students Who Have 'Trubol GitingThangs Into Werds'
Santangelo, Tanya, Harris, Karen and Graham, Steve. (2008) Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development to Support Students Who Have 'Trubol GitingThangs Into Werds'. Remedial and Special Education.
Research on writing development, practice, instruction, and assessment: introduction to a special issue of reading and writing
Graham, Steve. (2008) Research on writing development, practice, instruction, and assessment: introduction to a special issue of reading and writing. Reading and Writing.
Michael Pressley's Contributions to the History and Future of Strategies Research
Harris, Karen, Alexander, Patricia and Graham, Steve. (2008) Michael Pressley's Contributions to the History and Future of Strategies Research. Educational Psychologist.
In Memory of Michael Pressley: A Role Model for 21st-Century Educational Psychologists
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2008) In Memory of Michael Pressley: A Role Model for 21st-Century Educational Psychologists. Educational Psychologist.
Writing instruction for adolescents with learning disabilities: Programs of intervention research
Mason, Linda H. and Graham, Steve. (2008) Writing instruction for adolescents with learning disabilities: Programs of intervention research. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice. 23(2), pp. 103 - 112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2008.00268.x
Primary grade writing instruction: A national survey
Cutler, Laura and Graham, Steve. (2008) Primary grade writing instruction: A national survey. Journal of Educational Psychology. 100(4), pp. 907 - 919. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012656
The effects of self-regulated strategy development on the writing performance of second-grade students with behavioral and writing difficulties
Lane, Kathleen Lynne, Harris, Karen, Graham, Steve and Weisenbach, Jessica L.. (2008) The effects of self-regulated strategy development on the writing performance of second-grade students with behavioral and writing difficulties. The Journal of Special Education.
Teaching spelling in the primary grades: A national survey of instructional practices and adaptations
Graham, Steve, Morphy, Paul, Harris, Karen and Fink-Chorzempa, Barbara. (2008) Teaching spelling in the primary grades: A national survey of instructional practices and adaptations. American Educational Research Journal.