The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use : Health impact assessment study
Rojas-Rueda, David, de Nazelle, Audrey, Tainio, Marko and Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.. (2011). The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use : Health impact assessment study. BMJ. 343, p. d4521. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d4521
|Authors||Rojas-Rueda, David, de Nazelle, Audrey, Tainio, Marko and Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.|
Objective: To estimate the risks and benefits to health of travel by bicycle, using a bicycle sharing scheme, compared with travel by car in an urban environment.
Design: Health impact assessment study.
Setting: Public bicycle sharing initiative, Bicing, in Barcelona, Spain.
Participants: 181 982 Bicing subscribers.
Main outcomes measures: The primary outcome measure was all cause mortality for the three domains of physical activity, air pollution (exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm), and road traffic incidents. The secondary outcome was change in levels of carbon dioxide emissions.
Results: Compared with car users the estimated annual change in mortality of the Barcelona residents using Bicing (n=181 982) was 0.03 deaths from road traffic incidents and 0.13 deaths from air pollution. As a result of physical activity, 12.46 deaths were avoided (benefit:risk ratio 77). The annual number of deaths avoided was 12.28. As a result of journeys by Bicing, annual carbon dioxide emissions were reduced by an estimated 9 062 344 kg.
Conclusions: Public bicycle sharing initiatives such as Bicing in Barcelona have greater benefits than risks to health and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
|Journal citation||343, p. d4521|
|Publisher||BMJ Publishing Group Limited|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d4521|
|Open access||Published as ‘gold’ (paid) open access|
|Research or scholarly||Research|
File Access Level
|Online||04 Aug 2011|
|Publication process dates|
|Accepted||13 Jun 2011|
|Deposited||10 May 2021|
|License: CC BY-NC 2.0|
|File access level: Open|
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