Young adults with higher motives and expectancies of regular cannabis use show poorer psychosocial functioning

Journal article


Amiet, Danielle, Youssef, George J., Hagg, Lauryn J., Lorenzetti, Valentina, Parkes, Linden, Solowij, Nadia and Yücel, Murat. (2020). Young adults with higher motives and expectancies of regular cannabis use show poorer psychosocial functioning. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 11, p. 599365. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.599365
AuthorsAmiet, Danielle, Youssef, George J., Hagg, Lauryn J., Lorenzetti, Valentina, Parkes, Linden, Solowij, Nadia and Yücel, Murat
Abstract

Background: Young adults regularly using cannabis represent a uniquely vulnerable yet heterogeneous cohort. Few studies have examined user profiles using cannabis use motives and expectations. The association between user profiles and psychosocial functioning among only regular users remains unexplored. This exploration is important to improve public education efforts and design tailor treatment approaches.

Methods: Regular cannabis users (at least weekly; n = 329) completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. The survey measured levels of cannabis use, other substance use, motives and expectations of cannabis use, symptoms of psychosis, depression, anxiety and stress, and reckless behavior such as getting high before work or driving under the influence of cannabis. Latent class analysis was performed using motives and expectations to identify data driven patterns of regular cannabis use. Classes were then used to investigate mental health and behavioral correlates of differences in motives and expectations.

Results: A 2-class solution provided the best fit to the data; Class 1: Low Motives and Expectancies (n = 158) characterized by lower endorsement across all motivation and expectation variables, and Class 2: High Motives and Expectancies (n = 171) characterized by endorsing multiple motivations, and higher positive and negative expectations of cannabis use. Classes differed in a range of cannabis use variables; e.g., greater proportion of peer use in Class 2. The High Motives and Expectancies users reported higher symptoms of psychosis (positive and negative symptoms), depression, anxiety, and stress. A higher proportion met the criteria for a cannabis use disorder compared with Low Motives and Expectancies users. High Motives and Expectancies users reported higher mean problems with nicotine dependence and illicit drug use other than cannabis and were more likely to get high before work and drive under the influence of cannabis.

Conclusions: There is heterogeneity among young regular cannabis users in their motivations and expectancies of use and associated psychosocial functioning. Understanding motives and expectancies can help segregate which users are at higher risk of worse functioning. These findings are timely when designing targeted assessment and treatment strategies, particularly as cannabis is further decriminalized and accessibility increases.

Keywordscannabis; marijuana; latent class; regular users; psychosocial functioning; young adult; motives; expectancies
Year2020
JournalFrontiers in Psychiatry
Journal citation11, p. 599365
PublisherFrontiers Research Foundation
ISSN1664-0640
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.599365
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85098490329
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1-12
FunderNational Health and Medical Research Council
Australian Research Council
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online15 Dec 2020
Publication process dates
Accepted20 Nov 2020
Deposited24 Aug 2021
ARC Funded ResearchThis output has been funded, wholly or partially, under the Australian Research Council Act 2001
Grant IDNHMRC/1117188
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Takahashi, Tsutomu, Nishikawa, Yumiko, Yücel, Murat, Whittle, Sarah, Lorenzetti, Valentina, Walterfang, Mark, Sasabayashi, Daiki, Suzuki, Michio, Pantelis, Christos and Allen, Nicholas B.. (2016). Olfactory sulcus morphology in patients with current and past major depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. 255, pp. 60 - 65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.07.008
Genetic imaging consortium for addiction medicine: From neuroimaging to genes
Mackey, Scott, Kan, Kees-Jan, Chaarani, Bader, Alia-Klein, Nelly, Batalla, Albert, Brooks, Samantha, Cousijn, Janna, Dagher, Alain, de Ruiter, Michiel, Desrivieres, Sylvane, Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W., Goldstein, Rita Z., Goudriaan, Anna E., Heitzeg, Mary M., Hutchison, Kent, Li, Chiang-Shan R., London, Edythe D., Lorenzetti, Valentina, Luijten, Maartje, ... Conrod, Patricia. (2016). Genetic imaging consortium for addiction medicine: From neuroimaging to genes. In Neuroscience for addiction medicine: From prevention to rehabilitation - methods and interventions pp. 203 - 223 Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.07.026
Adolescent cannabis use: What is the evidence for functional brain alteration?
Lorenzetti, Valentina, Alonso-Lana, Silvia, Youssef, G. J., Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio, Suo, Chao, Cousijn, Janna, Takagi, Michael, Yucel, Murat and Solowij, Nadia. (2016). Adolescent cannabis use: What is the evidence for functional brain alteration? Current Pharmaceutical Design. 22(42), pp. 6353 - 6365. https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612822666160805155922
The role of cannabinoids in neuroanatomic alterations in cannabis users
Lorenzetti, Valentina, Solowij, Nadia and Yücel, Murat. (2016). The role of cannabinoids in neuroanatomic alterations in cannabis users. Biological Psychiatry. 79(7), pp. e17 - e31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.11.013
Hippocampal harms, protection and recovery following regular cannabis use
Yücel, Murat, Lorenzetti, Valentina, Suo, C., Zalesky, Andrew, Fornito, Alex, Takagi, Michael J., Lubman, Dan I. and Solowij, Nadia. (2016). Hippocampal harms, protection and recovery following regular cannabis use. Translational Psychiatry. 6(1), pp. 1 - 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2015.201
An MRI study of white matter tract integrity in regular cannabis users: Effects of cannabis use and age
Jakabek, David, Yucel, Murat, Lorenzetti, Valentina and Solowij, Nadia. (2016). An MRI study of white matter tract integrity in regular cannabis users: Effects of cannabis use and age. Psychopharmacology. 233(19-20), pp. 3627 - 3637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-016-4398-3
Gross morphological brain changes with chronic, heavy cannabis use
Lorenzetti, Valentina, Solowij, Nadia, Whittle, Sarah, Fornito, Alex, Lubman, Dan I., Pantelis, Christos and Yücel, Murat. (2015). Gross morphological brain changes with chronic, heavy cannabis use. British Journal of Psychiatry. 206(1), pp. 77 - 78. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.114.151407
Cortico-limbic network abnormalities in individuals with current and past major depressive disorder
Klauser, Paul, Fornito, Alex, Lorenzetti, Valentina, Davey, Christopher G., Dwyer, Dominic B., Allen, Nicholas B. and Yücel, Murat. (2015). Cortico-limbic network abnormalities in individuals with current and past major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders. 173, pp. 45 - 52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.041
The association between regular cannabis exposure and alterations of human brain morphology: An updated review of the literature
Lorenzetti, Valentina, Solowij, Nadia, Fornito, Alex, Lubman, Dan Ian and Yücel, Murat. (2014). The association between regular cannabis exposure and alterations of human brain morphology: An updated review of the literature. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 20(13), pp. 2138 - 2167. https://doi.org/10.2174/13816128113199990435
The neural cascade of olfactory processing: A combined fMRI-EEG study
Masaoka, Yuri, Harding, Ian H., Koiwa, Nobuyoshi, Yoshida, Masaki, Harrison, Ben J., Lorenzetti, Valentina, Ida, Masahiro, Izumizaki, Masahiko, Pantelis, Christos and Homma, Ikuo. (2014). The neural cascade of olfactory processing: A combined fMRI-EEG study. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 204, pp. 71 - 77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2014.06.008
Human amygdala volume is predicted by common DNA variation in the stathmin and serotonin transporter genes
Stjepanović, D., Lorenzetti, Valentina, Yücel, Murat, Hawi, Z. and Bellgrove, M. A.. (2013). Human amygdala volume is predicted by common DNA variation in the stathmin and serotonin transporter genes. Translational Psychiatry. 3(7), pp. 1 - 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2013.41
Alteration to hippocampal shape in cannabis users with and without schizophrenia
Solowij, Nadia, Walterfang, Mark, Lubman, Dan I., Whittle, Sarah, Lorenzetti, Valentina, Styner, Martin, Velakoulis, Dennis, Pantelis, Christos and Yucel, Murat. (2013). Alteration to hippocampal shape in cannabis users with and without schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research. 143(1), pp. 179 - 184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2012.10.040