Establishing the reliability of instrumented trunk impairment assessment methods to enable evidence-based classification in Para swimming

Journal article


Smith, Rachel, Connick, Mark, Beckman, Emma, Hogarth, Luke and Nicholson, Vaughan. (2021). Establishing the reliability of instrumented trunk impairment assessment methods to enable evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Journal of Sports Sciences. 39(S1), pp. 73-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2021.1930699
AuthorsSmith, Rachel, Connick, Mark, Beckman, Emma, Hogarth, Luke and Nicholson, Vaughan
Abstract

This study examined the reliability of instrumented trunk assessment methods across two experiments to develop and improve evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Trunk coordination, range of motion (ROM), and strength were assessed in 38 non-disabled participants. Each test battery was completed on two occasions to determine inter-session reliability. Intra-session reliability was also determined in Experiment Two. Absolute agreement of two-way mixed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3,1) was calculated to assess reliability. Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were also reported to facilitate comparisons between different outcomes. Trunk coordination measures had low-to-moderate reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.00–0.60; intra-session ICCs = 0.14–0.65) and variable SEMs (5–60%). Trunk ROM demonstrated moderate-to-excellent reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.61–0.93; intra-session ICCs = 0.87–0.95) and good SEMs (<10%). Trunk strength measures demonstrated good-to-excellent reliability (ICCs = 0.87–0.98) and good SEMs (<10%). The strength values obtained for the load cell and hand-held dynamometer (HHD) were significantly different from each other with the HHD underestimating strength. Modifications provided in Experiment Two improved the reliability of strength and ROM assessments but did not improve coordination measures. Further research involving para swimmers is required to establish the validity of the methods.

Keywordsswimming; paralympics; disability; strength; validity; coordination
Year2021
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Journal citation39 (S1), pp. 73-80
PublisherRoutledge
ISSN0264-0414
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2021.1930699
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85107478851
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range73-80
Publisher's version
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online05 Jun 2021
Publication process dates
Accepted12 May 2021
Deposited15 Nov 2021
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