Modeling the risk of team sport injuries : A narrative review of different statistical approaches

Journal article


Ruddy, Joshua D., Cormack, Stuart J., Whiteley, Rod, Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Opar, David A.. (2019). Modeling the risk of team sport injuries : A narrative review of different statistical approaches. Frontiers in Physiology. 10, p. Article 829.
AuthorsRuddy, Joshua D., Cormack, Stuart J., Whiteley, Rod, Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Opar, David A.
Abstract

Injuries are a common occurrence in team sports and can have significant financial, physical and psychological consequences for athletes and their sporting organizations. As such, an abundance of research has attempted to identify factors associated with the risk of injury, which is important when developing injury prevention and risk mitigation strategies. There are a number of methods that can be used to identify injury risk factors. However, difficulty in understanding the nuances between different statistical approaches can lead to incorrect inferences and decisions being made from data. Accordingly, this narrative review aims to (1) outline commonly implemented methods for determining injury risk, (2) highlight the differences between association and prediction as it relates to injury and (3) describe advances in statistical modeling and the current evidence relating to predicting injuries in sport. Based on the points that are discussed throughout this narrative review, both researchers and practitioners alike need to carefully consider the different types of variables that are examined in relation to injury risk and how the analyses pertaining to these different variables are interpreted. There are a number of other important considerations when modeling the risk of injury, such as the method of data transformation, model validation and performance assessment. With these technical considerations in mind, researchers and practitioners should consider shifting their perspective of injury etiology from one of reductionism to one of complexity. Concurrently, research implementing reductionist approaches should be used to inform and implement complex approaches to identifying injury risk. However, the ability to capture large injury numbers is a current limitation of sports injury research and there has been a call to make data available to researchers, so that analyses and results can be replicated and verified. Collaborative efforts such as this will help prevent incorrect inferences being made from spurious data and will assist in developing interventions that are underpinned by sound scientific rationale. Such efforts will be a step in the right direction of improving the ability to identify injury risk, which in turn will help improve risk mitigation and ultimately the prevention of injuries.

Keywordssport; injury; prevention; prediction; association
Year2019
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Journal citation10, p. Article 829
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1-16
Publisher's version
License
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Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online09 Jul 2019
Publication process dates
Accepted14 Jun 2019
Deposited18 Nov 2021
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Self-reported wellness profiles of professional Australian Football players during the competition phase of the season
Gallo, Tania F., Cormack, Stuart J., Gabbett, Tim J. and Lorenzen, Christian H.. (2017). Self-reported wellness profiles of professional Australian Football players during the competition phase of the season. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(2), pp. 495 - 502. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001515
There is strength in numbers for muscle injuries it is time to establish an international collaborative registry
Van Dyke, Nicol, Van der Made, Anne D., Timmins, Ryan, Opar, David and Tol, Johannes L.. (2017). There is strength in numbers for muscle injuries it is time to establish an international collaborative registry. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097318
Effect of prior injury on changes to biceps femoris architecture across an Australian football league season
Timmins, Ryan, Bourne, Matthew N., Hickey, Jack, Maniar, Nirav, Tofari, Paul, Williams, Morgan and Opar, David. (2017). Effect of prior injury on changes to biceps femoris architecture across an Australian football league season. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49(10), pp. 2102 - 2109. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001333
Injury epidemiology of tennis players at the 2011-2016 Australian open grand slam
Gescheit, Danielle, Cormack, Stuart, Duffield, Rob, Kovalchik, Stephanie, Wood, Tim O., Omizzolo, Melanie and Reid, Machar. (2017). Injury epidemiology of tennis players at the 2011-2016 Australian open grand slam. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51(17), pp. 1 - 6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097283
Comparison of ergometer- and track-based testing in junior track-sprint cyclists. Implications for talent identification and development
Tofari, Paul, Cormack, Stuart, Ebert, Tammie R., Gardner, A. S. and Kemp, Justin. (2017). Comparison of ergometer- and track-based testing in junior track-sprint cyclists. Implications for talent identification and development. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1243795
Criteria for progressing rehabilitation and determining return to play clearance following hamstring strain injury: A systematic review
Hickey, Jack, Timmins, Ryan G., Maniar, Nirav, Williams, Morgan and Opar, David. (2017). Criteria for progressing rehabilitation and determining return to play clearance following hamstring strain injury: A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 47(7). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0667-x
Non-motorized treadmill running is associated with higher cardiometabolic demands compared with overground and motorized treadmill running
Edwards, Robert B., Tofari, Paul J., Cormack, Stuart J. and Whyte, Douglas G.. (2017). Non-motorized treadmill running is associated with higher cardiometabolic demands compared with overground and motorized treadmill running. Frontiers in Physiology. 8(914), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00914
Predictive modeling of hamstring strain injuries in elite Australian footballers
Ruddy, Joshua, Shield, Anthony J., Maniar, Nirav, Williams, Morgan D., Duhig, Steven J., Timmins, Ryan, Hickey, Jack, Bourne, Matthew N. and Opar, David. (2017). Predictive modeling of hamstring strain injuries in elite Australian footballers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 50(5), pp. 1 - 30. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001527
Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men
Filopoulos, Dean, Cormack, Stuart J. and Whyte, Douglas G.. (2017). Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men. European Journal of Sport Science. 17(7), pp. 821 - 829. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1317834
Running exposure is associated with the risk of hamstring strain injury in elite Australian footballers
Ruddy, Joshua D., Pollard, Christopher, Timmins, Ryan, Williams, Morgan, Shield, Anthony and Opar, David. (2017). Running exposure is associated with the risk of hamstring strain injury in elite Australian footballers. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096777
Drop punt kicking induces eccentric knee flexor weakness associated with reductions in hamstring electromyographic activity
Duhig, Steven J., Williams, Morgan, Minett, Geoffrey M., Opar, David and Shield, Anthony J.. (2017). Drop punt kicking induces eccentric knee flexor weakness associated with reductions in hamstring electromyographic activity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(6), pp. 595 - 599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.09.006
Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury
Bourne, Matthew N., Opar, David, Williams, Morgan, Najjar, Aiman Al and Shield, Anthony J.. (2016). Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 26(6). https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12494
Biceps femoris architecture and strength in athletes with a prior ACL reconstruction
Timmins, Ryan G., Bourne, Matthew N., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David A.. (2016). Biceps femoris architecture and strength in athletes with a prior ACL reconstruction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 48(3). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000783
Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maniar, Nirav, Shielf, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Opar, David A.. (2016). Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(15), pp. 909-920. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095311
Is there evidence to support the use of the angle of peak torque as a marker of hamstring injury and re-injury risk?
Timmins, Ryan G., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A.. (2016). Is there evidence to support the use of the angle of peak torque as a marker of hamstring injury and re-injury risk? Sports Medicine. 46(1), pp. 7-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0378-8
Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk
Duhig, Steven, Shield, Anthony, Opar, David, Gabbett, Tim, Ferguson, Cameron and Williams, Morgan. (2016). Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(24). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095679
Short biceps femoris fascicles and eccentric knee flexor weakness increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite football (soccer): a prospective cohort study
Timmins, Ryan G., Bourne, Matthew N., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2016). Short biceps femoris fascicles and eccentric knee flexor weakness increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite football (soccer): a prospective cohort study. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(24). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095362
Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training
Timmins, Ryan G., Ruddy, Joshua D., Presland, Joel, Maniar, Nirav and Williams, Morgan. (2016). Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 48(3). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000795
Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation
Tofari, Paul J., Opar, David, Kemp, Justin Guy, Billaut, Francois and Cormack, Stuart John. (2016). Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation. Muscle & Nerve. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.24926
Architectural adaptations of muscle to training and injury: A narrative review outlining the contributions by fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness
Timmins, Ryan G., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D., Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2016). Architectural adaptations of muscle to training and injury: A narrative review outlining the contributions by fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(23). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094881
Effects of consecutive days of match play on technical performance in tennis
Gescheit, Danielle, Duffield, Rob, Skein, Melissa, Brydon, Neil, Cormack, Stuart John and Reid, Machar. (2016). Effects of consecutive days of match play on technical performance in tennis. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1244352
Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players
Chalker, Wade J., Shield, Anthony J., Opar, David and Keogh, Justin W. L.. (2016). Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players. PeerJ. 4, pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1594
What do submarines have in common with diabetes?
Rio, Ebony, Timmins, Ryan Gregory and Opar, David. (2016). What do submarines have in common with diabetes? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(16), pp. 955 - 956. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096646
The juxtaposition of science and medicine in sport. Can we all play together nicely?
Opar, David and Rio, Ebony. (2015). The juxtaposition of science and medicine in sport. Can we all play together nicely? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 49(10), pp. 640 - 641. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094819
Eccentric knee flexor strength and risk of hamstring injuries in Rugby Union: A prospective study
Bourne, Matthew, Opar, David, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony. (2015). Eccentric knee flexor strength and risk of hamstring injuries in Rugby Union: A prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(11), pp. 2663 - 2670. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515599633
Acute injuries in track and field athletes : A 3-year observational study at the penn relays carnival with epidemiology and medical coverage implications
Opar, David, Drezner, Jonathan, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Webner, David, Sennett, Brian, Kapur, Rahul, Cohen, Marc, Ulager, James, Cafengiu, Ana and Cronholm, Peter F. (2015). Acute injuries in track and field athletes : A 3-year observational study at the penn relays carnival with epidemiology and medical coverage implications. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(4), pp. 816 - 822. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514562553
Consecutive days of prolonged tennis match play : Performance, physical, and perceptual responses in trained players
Gescheit, Danielle, Cormack, Stuart, Reid, Machar and Duffield, Rob. (2015). Consecutive days of prolonged tennis match play : Performance, physical, and perceptual responses in trained players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10, pp. 913 - 920. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0329
Comparison of anthropometry, upper body strength and lower body power characteristics in different levels of Australian Football players
Bilsborough, Johann, Greenway, Kate, Opar, David, Livingstone, Steuart, Cordy, Justin, Bird, S. and Coutts, Aaron. (2015). Comparison of anthropometry, upper body strength and lower body power characteristics in different levels of Australian Football players. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(3), pp. 826 - 834. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000682
Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Duhig, Steven and Shield, Anthony J.. (2015). Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(4). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000465
Activity Profile of High-Level Australian Lacrosse Players
Polley, Christopher S., Cormack, Stuart J., Gabbett, Tim J. and Polglaze, Ted. (2015). Activity Profile of High-Level Australian Lacrosse Players. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(1), pp. 126 - 136. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000599
The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Hickey, Jack, Duhig, Steven J. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2015). The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(2), pp. 377-384. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514556638
Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(5), pp. 905 - 913. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000507
Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training
Timmins, Ryan Gregory. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a9cbd05b0b98
Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers
Gallo, Tania, Cormack, Stuart, Gabbett, Tim, Williams, Morgan and Lorenzen, Christian. (2015). Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(5), pp. 467 - 475. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.947311
The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes
Bilsborough, Johann, Greenway, Kate, Opar, David, Livingstone, Steuart, Cordy, Justin and Coutts, Aaron. (2014). The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences. 32(19), pp. 1821 - 1828. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.926380
Is there a potential relationship between prior hamstring strain injury and increased risk for future anterior cruciate ligament injury?
Opar, David and Serpell, Benjamin. (2014). Is there a potential relationship between prior hamstring strain injury and increased risk for future anterior cruciate ligament injury? Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 95(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.07.028
Accelerometer Load as a Measure of Activity Profile in Different Standards of Netball Match Play
Cormack, Stuart, Smith, Renee, Mooney, Mitchell, Young, Warren and O'Brien, Brendan. (2014). Accelerometer Load as a Measure of Activity Profile in Different Standards of Netball Match Play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(2), pp. 283 - 291. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2012-0216
Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running
Timmins, R. G., Opar, D. A., Williams, M. D., Schache, A. G., Dear, N. M. and Shield, A. J.. (2014). Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4), pp. e299-e305. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12171
The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League
Hickey, Jack, Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A. (2014). The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48(8), pp. 729-730. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092884
Acute hamstring strain injury in track-and-field athletes: A 3-year observational study at the Penn Relay Carnival
Opar, David, Drezner, Jonathan, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Webner, David, Sennett, Brian, Kapur, Rahul, Cohen, M., Ulager, James and Cafengiu, Ana. (2014). Acute hamstring strain injury in track-and-field athletes: A 3-year observational study at the Penn Relay Carnival. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12159
A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Opar, David, Piatowski, Timothy, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony J.. (2013). A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 43(9), pp. 636 - 640. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2013.4837
Strength and power profiling of athletes : Selecting tests and how to use the information for program design
McGuigan, Michael, Cormack, Stuart and Gill, Nicholas. (2013). Strength and power profiling of athletes : Selecting tests and how to use the information for program design. Strength and Conditioning Journal. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000011
Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on match exercise intensity and performance in elite Australian football
Mooney, Mitchell, Cormack, Stuart, O'Brien, Brendan, Morgan, William and McGuigan, Michael. (2013). Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on match exercise intensity and performance in elite Australian football. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182514683
Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Dear, Nuala M. (2013). Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 41(1), pp. 116-125. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512462809
The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence
Fyfe, Jackson, Opar, David, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony. (2013). The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3), pp. 523-530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.12.006
Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Dear, Nuala M. and Shield, Anthony J. (2013). Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3), pp. 696-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.11.004
Influence of neuromuscular fatigue on accelerometer load in elite Australian football players
Cormack, Stuart, Mooney, Mitchell, Morgan, Will and McGuigan, Michael. (2013). Influence of neuromuscular fatigue on accelerometer load in elite Australian football players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.8.4.373
Do physical capacity and interchange rest periods influence match exercise-intensity profile in Australian football?
Mooney, Mitchell, Cormack, Stuart, O'Brien, Brendan and Coutts, Aaron. (2013). Do physical capacity and interchange rest periods influence match exercise-intensity profile in Australian football? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.8.2.165
International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level conterparts
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron and Aughey, Robert. (2012). International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level conterparts. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 26(4), pp. 947 - 952. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822e5913
Hamstring strain injuries : Factors that lead to injury and re-injury
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D. and Shield, Anthony J. (2012). Hamstring strain injuries : Factors that lead to injury and re-injury. Sports Medicine. 42(3), pp. 209-226. https://doi.org/10.2165/11594800-000000000-00000
GPS Analysis of an International Field Hockey Tournament
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron and Aughey, Robert. (2012). GPS Analysis of an International Field Hockey Tournament. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 7(3), pp. 224 - 231. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.7.3.224
Is "train as you play" the way to go?
Gabbett, Tim and Cormack, Stuart. (2012). Is "train as you play" the way to go? 5th Exercise and Sports Science Australia Conference. pp. 41 - 42
The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football :A mediation approach
Mooney, Mitchell, O'Brien, Brendan, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Berry, Jason and Young, Warren. (2011). The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football :A mediation approach. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 14(5), pp. 447 - 452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.03.010
Which jump variables should be used to assess explosive leg muscle function?
Young, Warren, Cormack, Stuart and Crichton, Michael. (2011). Which jump variables should be used to assess explosive leg muscle function? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 6(1), pp. 51 - 57. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.6.1.51
A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance
Tofari, Paul J., McLean, Blake D., Kemp, Justin and Cormack, Stuart. (2011). A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 14(1), pp. 62 - 68.
The Validity and Reliability of GPS Units for Measuring Distance in Team Sport Specific Running Patterns
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Boyd, Luke and Aughey, Robert. (2010). The Validity and Reliability of GPS Units for Measuring Distance in Team Sport Specific Running Patterns. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(3), pp. 328 - 341. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.3.328
Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Boyd, Luke and Aughey, Robert. (2010). Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(4), pp. 565 - 569. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.4.565
Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players
McLean, Blake, Coutts, Aaron, Kelly, Vincent, McGuigan, Michael and Cormack, Stuart. (2010). Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(3), pp. 367 - 383. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.3.367
Movement pattern comparisons in elite (AFL) and sub-elite (WAFL) Australian football games using GPS
Brewer, Cameron, Dawson, Brian, Heasman, Jarryd, Stewart, Glenn and Cormack, Stuart. (2010). Movement pattern comparisons in elite (AFL) and sub-elite (WAFL) Australian football games using GPS. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 13(6), pp. 618 - 623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2010.01.005
Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players
McGuigan, Michael, Cormack, Stuart and Newton, Robert U.. (2009). Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(1), pp. 26 - 32. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818753ca
Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players to an Australian rules football match
Cormack, Stuart, Newton, Robert U. and McGuigan, Michael. (2008). Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players to an Australian rules football match. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(3), pp. 359 - 374. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.3.359
Reliability of measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jumps
Cormack, Stuart, Newton, Robert U., McGuigan, Michael and Doyle, Tim. (2008). Reliability of measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jumps. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(2), pp. 131 - 144. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.2.131
Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season
Cormack, Stuart John, Newton, Robert U., McGuigan, Michael R. and Cormie, Prue. (2008). Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(4), pp. 439 - 453. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.4.439
Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: The incremental load power profile
Sheppard, Jeremy, Cormack, Stuart, Taylor, Kristie-Lee, McGuigan, Michael and Newton, Robert U.. (2008). Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: The incremental load power profile. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(4), pp. 1320 - 1326. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d671b
The use of sprint tests for assessment of speed qualities of elite Australian rules footballers
Young, Warren, Russell, Andrew, Burge, Peter, Clarke, Alex, Cormack, Stuart and Stewart, Glenn. (2008). The use of sprint tests for assessment of speed qualities of elite Australian rules footballers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(2), pp. 199 - 206. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.2.199