Muscle activity and activation in previously strain-injured lower limbs : A systematic review

Journal article


Presland, J. D., Timmins, R. G., Maniar, N., Tofari, P. J., Kidgell, D. J., Shield, A. J., Dickson, J. and Opar, D.. (2021). Muscle activity and activation in previously strain-injured lower limbs : A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 51(11), pp. 2311-2327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01487-w
AuthorsPresland, J. D., Timmins, R. G., Maniar, N., Tofari, P. J., Kidgell, D. J., Shield, A. J., Dickson, J. and Opar, D.
Abstract

Background
Lower limb muscle strain injury is highly prevalent in running-based sports and is considered a risk factor for recurrent injury. It is possible that differences in muscle activity and activation in previously strain-injured limbs may contribute to the elevated risk of reinjury.

Objectives
To systematically review available literature investigating whether muscle activity and/or activation is different in previously strain-injured muscles compared to contralateral uninjured muscles or uninjured controls.

Methods
A systematic review of literature in SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE Complete, CINAHL and Web of Science was conducted. Full-text English articles which compared indicators of neuromuscular function between injured and uninjured contralateral limbs or control groups in those with a history of muscle strain injury were included.

Results
Twelve studies were included in the review after eligibility criteria were applied. A best evidence synthesis revealed moderate to limited evidence suggesting differences in surface electromyography (sEMG) amplitude, integrated sEMG amplitude, inter-muscle sEMG ratios and voluntary activation in injured limbs, most often during eccentric contractions. Studies utilising sprinting assessments demonstrated conflicting evidence when comparing late swing phase biceps femoris sEMG amplitude between limbs with a history of hamstring strain injury and uninjured contralateral limbs.

Conclusions
Differences in muscle activity and activation were observed between injured and uninjured limbs across a variety of strength assessments. The evidence supporting these differences was most often moderate or limited and was generally observed during eccentric contractions. Mostly conflicting or limited evidence was found to suggest that participants with previous hamstring strain injury demonstrate no differences in muscle activity during running tasks when compared with their uninjured counterparts or contralateral limbs.

Trial Registry
PROSPERO (ID, CRD42019135681).

Year2021
JournalSports Medicine
Journal citation51 (11), pp. 2311-2327
PublisherAdis International Ltd.
ISSN0112-1642
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01487-w
PubMed ID34309803
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85111288635
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range2311-2327
Publisher's version
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online26 Jul 2021
Publication process dates
Accepted16 May 2021
Deposited23 Nov 2021
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The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Hickey, Jack, Duhig, Steven J. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2015). The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(2), pp. 377-384. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514556638
Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(5), pp. 905 - 913. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000507
The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature
Maniar, Nirav, Bach, Aaron, Stewart, Ian and Costello, Joseph. (2015). The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature. Journal of Thermal Biology. 49-50, pp. 33 - 38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2015.01.008
Effects of Military Load Carriage on Susceptibility to Enemy Fire During Tactical Combat Movements
Billing, Daniel C., Silk, Aaron J., Tofari, Paul J. and Hunt, Andrew P.. (2015). Effects of Military Load Carriage on Susceptibility to Enemy Fire During Tactical Combat Movements. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(11S), pp. S134 - S138. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001036
Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training
Timmins, Ryan Gregory. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a9cbd05b0b98
Changes in running performance after four weeks of interval training in Australian Footballers : A single-blind placebo-controlled study
McLean, Blake, Tofari, Paul, Gore, Christopher and Kemp, Justin. (2015). Changes in running performance after four weeks of interval training in Australian Footballers : A single-blind placebo-controlled study. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(11), pp. 3206 - 3215. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000984
The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes
Bilsborough, Johann, Greenway, Kate, Opar, David, Livingstone, Steuart, Cordy, Justin and Coutts, Aaron. (2014). The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences. 32(19), pp. 1821 - 1828. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.926380
Is there a potential relationship between prior hamstring strain injury and increased risk for future anterior cruciate ligament injury?
Opar, David and Serpell, Benjamin. (2014). Is there a potential relationship between prior hamstring strain injury and increased risk for future anterior cruciate ligament injury? Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 95(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.07.028
Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running
Timmins, R. G., Opar, D. A., Williams, M. D., Schache, A. G., Dear, N. M. and Shield, A. J.. (2014). Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4), pp. e299-e305. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12171
The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League
Hickey, Jack, Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A. (2014). The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48(8), pp. 729-730. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092884
Acute hamstring strain injury in track-and-field athletes: A 3-year observational study at the Penn Relay Carnival
Opar, David, Drezner, Jonathan, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Webner, David, Sennett, Brian, Kapur, Rahul, Cohen, M., Ulager, James and Cafengiu, Ana. (2014). Acute hamstring strain injury in track-and-field athletes: A 3-year observational study at the Penn Relay Carnival. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12159
A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Opar, David, Piatowski, Timothy, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony J.. (2013). A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 43(9), pp. 636 - 640. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2013.4837
A quantification of the physiological demands of the army emergency responder in the Australian Army
Tofari, Paul J., Laing Treloar, Alison K. and Silk, Aaron J.. (2013). A quantification of the physiological demands of the army emergency responder in the Australian Army. Military Medicine. 178(5), pp. 487 - 494. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00423
Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Dear, Nuala M. (2013). Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 41(1), pp. 116-125. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512462809
The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence
Fyfe, Jackson, Opar, David, Williams, Morgan and Shield, Anthony. (2013). The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3), pp. 523-530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.12.006
Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Dear, Nuala M. and Shield, Anthony J. (2013). Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3), pp. 696-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.11.004
Hamstring strain injuries : Factors that lead to injury and re-injury
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D. and Shield, Anthony J. (2012). Hamstring strain injuries : Factors that lead to injury and re-injury. Sports Medicine. 42(3), pp. 209-226. https://doi.org/10.2165/11594800-000000000-00000
A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance
Tofari, Paul J., McLean, Blake D., Kemp, Justin and Cormack, Stuart. (2011). A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 14(1), pp. 62 - 68.