Stair climbing and mortality : A prospective cohort study from the UK Biobank

Journal article


Sanchez-Lastra, Miguel A., Ding, Ding, Dalene, Knut-Eirik, del Pozo Cruz, Borja, Ekelund, Ulf and Tarp, Jakob. (2021). Stair climbing and mortality : A prospective cohort study from the UK Biobank. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. 12(2), pp. 298-307. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12679
AuthorsSanchez-Lastra, Miguel A., Ding, Ding, Dalene, Knut-Eirik, del Pozo Cruz, Borja, Ekelund, Ulf and Tarp, Jakob
Abstract

Background
Regular stair climbing has the potential to lower the risk of premature death, but current evidence is scarce. We aimed to examine whether daily stair climbing is associated with lower risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.

Methods
Using the UK Biobank cohort, we extracted information of self-reported daily flights of stairs climbed at home, categorized as none, 1 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, and ≥16 flights per day. Associations between flights of stair climbed per day and mortality were examined as hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographic, clinical, and behavioural covariates including time spent in other physical activities. We calculated the restricted mean survival time as an absolute measure of association. The risk of residual confounding was examined using propensity score matching and by using lung cancer as negative control outcome. Participants were followed from baseline (2006–2010) through 31 March 2020.

Results
A total of 280 423 participants (median follow-up 11.1 years, during which 9445 deaths occurred) were included. Compared with not climbing any stairs, climbing more than five flights of stairs at home per day was associated with lower risk of premature mortality. The lowest risk was found for those climbing 6–10 flights per day: 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 0.98, translated to approximately 44 to 55 days of additional survival. A similar pattern was found after applying propensity score matching and for cancer mortality (6–10 flights per day HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.97), but not for CVD mortality (6–10 flights per day HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.29). The association between stair climbing and lung cancer was similar to that of all-cause mortality.

Conclusions
Climbing more than five flights of stairs at home per day was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and cancer mortality, but not CVD mortality, compared with those who did not take the stairs. The magnitude of the association was small and appeared susceptible to residual confounding. It is unlikely that at-home stair climbing is sufficient physical activity stimuli to lower the risk of premature mortality.

Keywordsstair walking; physical activity; mortality; epidemiology
Year2021
JournalJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Journal citation12 (2), pp. 298-307
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd
ISSN2190-5991
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12679
PubMed ID33543604
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85100350939
PubMed Central IDPMC8061405
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range298-307
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online04 Feb 2021
Publication process dates
Accepted30 Dec 2020
Deposited23 Nov 2021
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Clinical effects of a nine-month web-based intervention in subacute non-specific low back pain patients: A randomized controlled trial
del Pozo-Cruz, Borja, Gusi, Narcis, del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús, Adsuar, Jose C., Hernandez-Mocholí, Miguel and Parraca, Jose A.. (2013). Clinical effects of a nine-month web-based intervention in subacute non-specific low back pain patients: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation. 27(1), pp. 28 - 39. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215512444632
Reanalysis of a tailored web-based exercise programme for office workers with sub-acute low back pain: Assessing the stage of change in behaviour
del Pozo Cruz, Borja, del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús, Adsuar, Jose C., Parraca, Jose A. and Gusi, Narcis. (2013). Reanalysis of a tailored web-based exercise programme for office workers with sub-acute low back pain: Assessing the stage of change in behaviour. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 18(6), pp. 687 - 697. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2013.765019
A primary care–based randomized controlled trial of 12-week whole-body vibration for balance improvement in type 2 diabetes mellitus
del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús, Alfonso-Rosa, Rosa M., Ugia, José L., McVeigh, Joseph G., del Pozo-Cruz, Borja and Sañudo, Borja. (2013). A primary care–based randomized controlled trial of 12-week whole-body vibration for balance improvement in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 94(11), pp. 2112 - 2118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.05.030
Whole body vibration training improves leg blood flow and adiposity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Sañudo, Borja, Alfonso-Rosa, Rosa M., del Pozo-Cruz, Borja, del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús, Galiano, Delfín and Figueroa, Arturo. (2013). Whole body vibration training improves leg blood flow and adiposity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 113(9), pp. 2245 - 2252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-013-2654-3
Musculoskeletal fitness and health-related quality of life characteristics among sedentary office workers affected by sub-acute, non-specific low back pain: A cross-sectional study
del Pozo Cruz, Borja, Gusi, Narcis, Adsuar, Jose C., del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús, Parraca, Jose A. and Hernandez-Mocholí, M.. (2013). Musculoskeletal fitness and health-related quality of life characteristics among sedentary office workers affected by sub-acute, non-specific low back pain: A cross-sectional study. Physiotherapy. 99(3), pp. 194 - 200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2012.06.006
Using whole-body vibration training in patients affected with common neurological diseases: A systematic literature review
del Pozo-Cruz, Borja, Adsuar, Jose C., Parraca, Jose A., del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús, Olivares, Pedro R. and Gusi, Narcis. (2012). Using whole-body vibration training in patients affected with common neurological diseases: A systematic literature review. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 18(1), pp. 29 - 41. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2010.0691
An occupational, internet-based intervention to prevent chronicity in subacute lower back pain: A randomized controlled trial
del Pozo Cruz, Borja, Parraca, Jose A., del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús, Adsuar, Jose C., Hill, Jonathan C. and Gusi, Narcis. (2012). An occupational, internet-based intervention to prevent chronicity in subacute lower back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 44(7), pp. 581 - 587. https://doi.org/10.2340/16501977-0988
A Web-Based Intervention to Improve and Prevent low back pain among office workers: A randomized controlled trial
del Pozo Cruz, Borja, Adsuar, Jose C., Parraca, Jose A., del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus, Moreno, Antonio and Gusi, Narcis. (2012). A Web-Based Intervention to Improve and Prevent low back pain among office workers: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 42(10), pp. 831 - 841. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2012.3980
Balance training reduces fear of falling and improves dynamic balance and isometric strength in institutionalised older people: A randomised trial
Gusi, Narcis, Adsuar, Jose Carmelo, Corzo, Héctor, del Pozo Cruz, Borja, Olivares, Pedro R. and Parraca, Jose A.. (2012). Balance training reduces fear of falling and improves dynamic balance and isometric strength in institutionalised older people: A randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy. 58(2), pp. 97 - 104. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1836-9553(12)70089-9
Whole body vibration improves the single-leg stance static balance in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial
Adsuar, Jose C., del Pozo Cruz, Borja, Parraca, Jose A., Olivares, Pedro R. and Gusi, Narcis. (2012). Whole body vibration improves the single-leg stance static balance in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 52(1), pp. 85 - 91.
Test-retest reliability of isometric and isokinetic knee extension and flexion in patients with fibromyalgia: Evaluation of the smallest real difference
Adsuar, Jose C., Olivares, Pedro R., del Pozo-Cruz, Borja, Parraca, Jose A. and Gusi, Narcis. (2011). Test-retest reliability of isometric and isokinetic knee extension and flexion in patients with fibromyalgia: Evaluation of the smallest real difference. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 92(10), pp. 1646 - 1651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2011.04.017
Tilting whole body vibration improves quality of life in women with fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial
Olivares, Pedro R., Gusi, Narcis, Parraca, Jose A., Adsuar, Jose C. and del Pozo-Cruz, Borja. (2011). Tilting whole body vibration improves quality of life in women with fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 17(8), pp. 723 - 728. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2010.0296
The Spanish version of the "STarT Back Screening Tool" (SBST) in different subgroups
Gusi, Narcís, del Pozo-Cruz, Borja, Olivares, Pedro R., Hernández-Mocholi, Miguel and Hill, Jonathan C.. (2011). The Spanish version of the "STarT Back Screening Tool" (SBST) in different subgroups. Atención Primaria. 43(7), pp. 356 - 361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aprim.2010.05.019
Effects of whole body vibration therapy on main outcome measures for chronic non-specific low back pain: A single-blind randomized controlled trial
del Pozo-Cruz, Borja, Hernández Mocholí, Miguel A., Adsuar, Jose C., Parraca, Jose A., Muro, Inmaculada and Gusi, Narcis. (2011). Effects of whole body vibration therapy on main outcome measures for chronic non-specific low back pain: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 43(8), pp. 689 - 694. https://doi.org/10.2340/16501977-0830