Molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function and neurological disorders

Journal article


Nay, Kévin, Smiles, William J., Kaiser, Jacqueline, McAloon, Luke M., Loh, Kim, Galic, Sandra, Oakhill, Jonathan S., Gundlach, Andrew L. and Scott, John W.. (2021). Molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function and neurological disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 22, p. Article 4052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084052
AuthorsNay, Kévin, Smiles, William J., Kaiser, Jacqueline, McAloon, Luke M., Loh, Kim, Galic, Sandra, Oakhill, Jonathan S., Gundlach, Andrew L. and Scott, John W.
Abstract

As life expectancy has increased, particularly in developed countries, due to medical advances and increased prosperity, age-related neurological diseases and mental health disorders have become more prevalent health issues, reducing the well-being and quality of life of sufferers and their families. In recent decades, due to reduced work-related levels of physical activity, and key research insights, prescribing adequate exercise has become an innovative strategy to prevent or delay the onset of these pathologies and has been demonstrated to have therapeutic benefits when used as a sole or combination treatment. Recent evidence suggests that the beneficial effects of exercise on the brain are related to several underlying mechanisms related to muscle–brain, liver–brain and gut–brain crosstalk. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the most relevant current knowledge of the impact of exercise on mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, and to highlight the established and potential underlying mechanisms involved in exercise–brain communication and their benefits for physiology and brain function.

Keywordsexercise; brain; BDNF; iron; microbiota; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease
Year2021
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Journal citation22, p. Article 4052
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI AG)
ISSN1422-0067
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084052
PubMed ID33919972
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85104000770
PubMed Central IDPMC8070923
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1-18
FunderNational Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online14 Apr 2021
Publication process dates
Accepted12 Apr 2021
Deposited14 Mar 2022
Grant IDNHMRC/1138102
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Protein coingestion with alcohol following strenuous exercise attenuates alcohol-induced intramyocellular apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy
Smiles, William J., Parr, Evelyn B., Coffey, Vernon G., Lacham-Kaplan, Orly, Hawley, John Alan and Camera, Donny Michael. (2016). Protein coingestion with alcohol following strenuous exercise attenuates alcohol-induced intramyocellular apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. 311(5), pp. E836 - E849. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00303.2016
The social supply of cannabis among young people in Australia
Lenton, Simon, Grigg, Jodie, Scott, John, Barratt, Monica and Eleftheriadis, Dina. (2015). The social supply of cannabis among young people in Australia. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. (503), pp. 1-6.
Metformin and salicylate synergistically activate liver AMPK, inhibit lipogenesis and improve insulin sensitivity
Ford, Rebecca, Fullerton, Morgan, Pinkosky, Stephen, Day, Emily, Scott, John, Oakhill, Jonathan, Bujak, Adam, Smith, Brennan, Crane, Justin, Blumer, Regje, Marcinko, Katarina, Kemp, Bruce, Gerstein, Hertzel and Steinberg, Gregory. (2015). Metformin and salicylate synergistically activate liver AMPK, inhibit lipogenesis and improve insulin sensitivity. Biochemical Journal. 468(1), pp. 125 - 132. https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20150125
Inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase at the allosteric drug-binding site promotes islet insulin release
Scott, John, Galic, Sandra, Graham, Kate, Foitzik, Richard, Ling, Naomi, Dite, Toby, Issa, Samah, Langendorf, Chris, Weng, Qing, Thomas, Helen, Kay, Thomas, Birnberg, Neal, Steinberg, Gregory, Kemp, Bruce and Oakhill, Jonathan. (2015). Inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase at the allosteric drug-binding site promotes islet insulin release. Chemistry and Biology. 22(6), pp. 705 - 711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2015.05.011
Autophosphorylation of CaMKK2 generates autonomous activity that is disrupted by a T85S mutation linked to anxiety and bipolar disorder
Scott, John, Park, Elizabeth, Rodriguiz, Ramona, Oakhill, Jonathan, Issa, Samah, O'Brien, Matthew, Dite, Toby, Langendorf, Christopher, Wetsel, William, Means, Anthony and Kemp, Bruce. (2015). Autophosphorylation of CaMKK2 generates autonomous activity that is disrupted by a T85S mutation linked to anxiety and bipolar disorder. Scientific Reports. 5, pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep14436
SnRK1 from Arabidopsis thaliana is an atypical AMPK
Emanuelle, Shane, Hossain, Mohammed Iqbal, Moller, Isabel E., Pedersen, Henriette L., van de Meene, Allison M. L., Doblin, Monika S., Koay, Ann, Oakhill, Jonathan S., Scott, John W., Willats, William G. T., Kemp, Bruce Ernest, Bacic, Antony, Gooley, Paul R. and Stapleton, David I.. (2015). SnRK1 from Arabidopsis thaliana is an atypical AMPK. Plant Journal. 82(2), pp. 183 - 192. https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12813
Mutant TDP-43 deregulates AMPK activation by PP2A in ALS models
Perera, Nirma, Sheean, Rebecca, Scott, John, Kemp, Bruce, Horne, Malcolm and Turner, Bradley. (2014). Mutant TDP-43 deregulates AMPK activation by PP2A in ALS models. PLoS One (online). 9(3), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090449
The relationship between exercise, nutrition and type 2 diabetes
Stephenson, Erin J., Smiles, William and Hawley, John Alan. (2014). The relationship between exercise, nutrition and type 2 diabetes. Medicine and Sport Science. 60, pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1159/000357331
ATP sensitive bi-quinoline activator of the AMP-activated protein kinase
Scott, John, Oakhill, Jonathan, Ling, Naomi, Langendorf, Christopher, Foitzik, Richard, Kemp, Bruce and Issinger, Olaf-Georg. (2014). ATP sensitive bi-quinoline activator of the AMP-activated protein kinase. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 443(2), pp. 435 - 440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.11.130
Small molecule drug A-769662 and AMP synergistically activate naive AMPK independent of upstream kinase signaling
Scott, John, Ling, Naomi, Issa, Samah, Dite, Toby, O'Brien, Matthew, Chen, Zhi-Ping, Galic, Sandra, Langendorf, Christopher, Steinberg, Gregory, Kemp, Bruce and Oakhill, Jonathan. (2014). Small molecule drug A-769662 and AMP synergistically activate naive AMPK independent of upstream kinase signaling. Chemistry and Biology. 21(5), pp. 619 - 627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.03.006
Differences between first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder
Cotton, Sue, Lambert, M, Schimmelmann, B, Mackinnon, Andrew, Gleeson, John, Berk, Michael, Hides, L, Chanen, Andrew, Scott, J and Schottle, D. (2013). Differences between first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Schizophrenia Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.02.036
Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta is regulated by multisite phosphorylation
Green, Michelle, Scott, John, Steel, Rohan, Oakhill, Jonathan, Kemp, Bruce and Means, Anthony. (2011). Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta is regulated by multisite phosphorylation. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286(32), pp. 28066 - 28079. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.251504
AMPK is a direct adenylate charge-regulated protein kinase
Oakhill, Jonathan S., Steel, Rohan, Chen, Zhi-Ping, Scott, John W., Ling, Naomi, Tam, Shanna and Kemp, Bruce Ernest. (2011). AMPK is a direct adenylate charge-regulated protein kinase. Science. 332(6036), pp. 1433 - 1435. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1200094