Writing and writing motivation of students identified as English language learners

Journal article


Graham, Stephen Edward, Camping, April, Harris, Karen R., Aitken, A. Angelique, Wilson, John M., Wdowin, Jeanne and Ng, Clarence. (2021). Writing and writing motivation of students identified as English language learners. International Journal of TESOL Studies . 3(1), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.46451/ijts.2021.01.01
AuthorsGraham, Stephen Edward, Camping, April, Harris, Karen R., Aitken, A. Angelique, Wilson, John M., Wdowin, Jeanne and Ng, Clarence
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the writing performance and motivational beliefs of students who were identified by their school district as English language learners. The study included 880 students (463 girls; 417 boys) in grades three to eight who wrote an informative/explanatory essay on information technology and completed a motivational survey assessing their intrinsic, extrinsic, and self-regulation incentives for writing. Ninety-seven percent of students’ scores on the writing measure did not meet grade-level proficiency for writing, girls received higher scores than boys, and writing scores generally increased across the six grade-levels. A majority of students agreed that intrinsic and extrinsic incentives drive their writing behavior, but only 38% of students indicated that self-regulation incentives had such an effect. Gender was not related to students’ motivational scores, but scores for the three motivational incentives declined from lower to higher grades. Recommendations for future research and suggestions for classroom practice were provided.

Keywordsextrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation; self-regulatory motivation; writing; English-language learners
Year2021
JournalInternational Journal of TESOL Studies 
Journal citation3 (1), pp. 1-13
PublisherCranmore Publications
ISSN2632-6779
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.46451/ijts.2021.01.01
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1-13
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All rights reserved
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Output statusPublished
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Online2021
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Deposited29 Mar 2022
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Graham, Stephen Edward. (2015). Writing instruction. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences pp. 767-772 Elsevier Ltd. (UK). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.92050-6
Learners' goal profiles and their learning patterns over an academic year
Ng, Chi-hung. (2015). Learners' goal profiles and their learning patterns over an academic year. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 16(3), pp. 86 - 109. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v16i3.1951
Research-based writing practices and the Common Core : Meta-analysis and meta-synthesis
Graham, Steve, Harris, Karen and Santangelo, Tanya. (2015). Research-based writing practices and the Common Core : Meta-analysis and meta-synthesis. The Elementary School Journal (print). 115(4), pp. 498 - 522. https://doi.org/10.1086/681964
Practice-based professional development and Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Tier 2, at-risk writers in second grade
Harris, Karen, Graham, Steve and Adkins, Mary. (2015). Practice-based professional development and Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Tier 2, at-risk writers in second grade. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 40, pp. 5 - 16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.02.003
Formative assessment and writing: A meta-analysis
Graham, Steve, Hebert, Michael and Harris, Karen. (2015). Formative assessment and writing: A meta-analysis. The Elementary School Journal (print). 115(4), pp. 523 - 547. https://doi.org/10.1086/681947
Professional development in Self-Regulated Strategy Development : Effects on the writing performance of eighth grade Portuguese students
Festas, Isabel, Oliveira, Albertina, Rebelo, Jose, Damiao, Maria, Harris, Karen and Graham, Steve. (2015). Professional development in Self-Regulated Strategy Development : Effects on the writing performance of eighth grade Portuguese students. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 40, pp. 17 - 27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.05.004
Lessons learned from implementing self-regulated strategy development with students with emotional and behavioral disorders in alternative educational settings
Parks Ennis, Robin, Harris, Karen, Lane, Kathleen Lynne and Mason, Linda H.. (2014). Lessons learned from implementing self-regulated strategy development with students with emotional and behavioral disorders in alternative educational settings. Behavioral Disorders. 40(1), pp. 68 - 77. https://doi.org/10.17988/0198-7429-40.1.68
Examining the self-congruent engagement hypothesis : The link between academic self-schemas, motivational goals, learning approaches and achievement within an academic year
Ng, Chi-hung. (2014). Examining the self-congruent engagement hypothesis : The link between academic self-schemas, motivational goals, learning approaches and achievement within an academic year. Educational Psychology. 34(6), pp. 730 - 762. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2013.832151
Teaching writing to middle school students: A national survey
Graham, Steve, Capizzi, Andrea, Harris, Karen, Hebert, Michael and Morphy, Paul. (2014). Teaching writing to middle school students: A national survey. Reading and Writing. 27(6), pp. 1015 - 1042. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9495-7
Conducting high quality writing intervention research: Twelve recommendations
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2014). Conducting high quality writing intervention research: Twelve recommendations. Journal of Writing Research. 6(2), pp. 89 - 123. https://doi.org/10.17239/jowr-2014.06.02.1
Self-regulated strategies development in writing: Development, implementation and scaling up
Harris, Karen, Graham, Steve and Santangelo, Tanya. (2013). Self-regulated strategies development in writing: Development, implementation and scaling up. In In H. Bembenutty, T. J. Cleary and A. Kitsantas (Ed.). Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines: A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman pp. 59 - 87 Information Age Publishing.
The writing of students with learning disabilities, meta-analysis of self-regulated strategy development writing intervention studies, and future directions
Graham, Steve, Harris, Karen and McKeown, Debra. (2013). The writing of students with learning disabilities, meta-analysis of self-regulated strategy development writing intervention studies, and future directions. In In H. L. Swanson, K. R. Harris and S. Graham (Ed.). Handbook of learning disabilities pp. 405 - 438 The Guilford Press.
How Do you Write?: Writing for Young Children
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2013). How Do you Write?: Writing for Young Children. In Handbook of Research-Based Practice in Early Education pp. 380 - 394 Guilford Press.
Writing Instruction
MacArthur, Charles A., Philippakos, Zoi, Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2012). Writing Instruction. In Learning about Learning Disabilities pp. 243 - 270 Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-388409-1.00009-6
A Meta-analysis of writing instruction for students in the elementary grades
Graham, Steve, McKeown, Debra, Kiuhara, Sharlene and Harris, Karen. (2012). A Meta-analysis of writing instruction for students in the elementary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology. 104(4), pp. 879 - 896. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029185
Strategies for improving student outcomes in written expression
Mason, Linda H., Harris, Karen and Graham, Steve. (2012). Strategies for improving student outcomes in written expression. In Research-Based Strategies For Improving Outcomes in Academics pp. 83 - 94 Pearson Education.
Redesigning academic essays to promote teacher reflection on selected issues of learning and teaching related to the current educational reform in Hong Kong
Ng, Chi-hung. (2012). Redesigning academic essays to promote teacher reflection on selected issues of learning and teaching related to the current educational reform in Hong Kong. Teaching Education. 23(4), pp. 387 - 410. https://doi.org/10.1080/10476210.2012.705824
The role of strategies, knowledge, will, and skills in a 30 year program of research (with homage to Hayes, Fayol, and Boscolo)
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2012). The role of strategies, knowledge, will, and skills in a 30 year program of research (with homage to Hayes, Fayol, and Boscolo). In In V. W. Berninger (Ed.). Past, Present, and Future Contributions of Cognitive Writing Research to Cognitive Psychology pp. 177 - 196 Psychology Press.
Practice-Based Professional Development for Self-Regulated Strategies Development in Writing: A Randomized Controlled Study
Harris, Karen, Lane, Kathleen, Graham, Steve, Driscoll, Steven, Sandmel, Karin, Brindle, Mary and Schatschneider, Chris. (2012). Practice-Based Professional Development for Self-Regulated Strategies Development in Writing: A Randomized Controlled Study. Journal of Teacher Education: the journal of policy, practice, and research in teacher education. 63(2), pp. 103 - 119. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487111429005
Tier 1, Teacher Implemented self-regulated stratergy development for students with and without behavioural challenges: A randomized controlled Trial
Harris, Karen, Lane, Kathleen, Driscoll, Steven, Graham, Steve, Wilson, Kristen, Sandmel, Karin, Brindle, Mary and Schatschneider, Chris. (2012). Tier 1, Teacher Implemented self-regulated stratergy development for students with and without behavioural challenges: A randomized controlled Trial. The Elementary School Journal. 113(2), pp. 160 - 191. https://doi.org/10.1086/667403
Teachers' perceptions of declining participation in school music
Ng, Chi-hung and Hartwig, Kay. (2011). Teachers' perceptions of declining participation in school music. Research Studies in Music Education. 33(2), pp. 123 - 142. https://doi.org/10.1177/1321103X11423598
Writing Difficulties
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2011). Writing Difficulties. In In Anne McGill-Franzen and Richard L. Allington (Ed.). Handbook of Reading Disability Research pp. 232 - 241 Routledge.
Self-regulated strategy development at Tier 2 for second-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties :A randomized controlled trial
Lane, Kathleen, Harris, Karen, Graham, Steve, Driscoll, Steven, Sandmel, Karin, Morphy, Paul, Hebert, Michael, House, Emily and Schatschneider, Christopher. (2011). Self-regulated strategy development at Tier 2 for second-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties :A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. 4(4), pp. 322 - 353. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2011.558987
Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students With Writing Difficulties
Mason, Linda, Harris, Karen and Graham, Steve. (2011). Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students With Writing Difficulties. Theory into Practice. 50(1), pp. 20 - 27. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2011.534922
Throw 'em Out or Make 'em Better? State and District High-Stakes Writing Assessments
Graham, Steve, Hebert, Michael and Harris, Karen. (2011). Throw 'em Out or Make 'em Better? State and District High-Stakes Writing Assessments. Focus on Exceptional Children. 44(1), pp. 1 - 12.
Success and failure with tier-2 SRSD for timed-writing tests among second through fifth-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties :implications for evidence-based practice
Sandmel, Karin, Wilson, Kristen D., Harris, Karen, Lane, Kathleen Lynne, Graham, Steve, Oakes, Wendy P., Kiuhara, Sharlene A. and Steinbrecher, Trish D.. (2011). Success and failure with tier-2 SRSD for timed-writing tests among second through fifth-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties :implications for evidence-based practice. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities. 24, pp. 251 - 293. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0735-004X(2011)0000024012
Success and failure with Tier 2 SRSD for timed writing tests among 2nd and 5th grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties: Implications for evidence-based practices
Sandmel, Karin, Wilson, Kristen D., Harris, Karen, Lane, Kathleen Lynne, Graham, Steve, Oakes, Wendy P., Kiuhara, Sharlene A. and Steinbrecher, Trish D.. (2011). Success and failure with Tier 2 SRSD for timed writing tests among 2nd and 5th grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties: Implications for evidence-based practices. In In T. E. Scruggs and M. A. Mastropieri (Ed.). Assessment and intervention pp. 251 - 294 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Informing Writing: The Benefits of Formative Assessment - A report from Carnegie Corporation of New York
Graham, Steve, Harris, Karen and Hebert, Michael. (2011). Informing Writing: The Benefits of Formative Assessment - A report from Carnegie Corporation of New York Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Self-Regulated Strategies Development for Persuasive Writing in Tandem With Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Support : Effects for Second-Grade Students With Behavioral and Writing Difficulties
Little, M, Lane, Kathleen, Harris, Karen, Graham, Steve, Story, Mary and Sandmel, Karin. (2010). Self-Regulated Strategies Development for Persuasive Writing in Tandem With Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Support : Effects for Second-Grade Students With Behavioral and Writing Difficulties. Behavioral Disorders. 35(2), pp. 157 - 179.
Evidence-based writing practices for Tiers 1, 2, and 3
Olinghouse, Natalie G., Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2010). Evidence-based writing practices for Tiers 1, 2, and 3. In Interventions for achievement and behavior in a three-tier model including RTI pp. 553 - 570 National Association of School Psychologists.
Story writing: The effects of self-regulated strategy development for second-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties
Lane, Kathleen Lynne, Graham, Steve, Harris, Karen, Little, M. Annette, Sandmel, Karin and Brindle, Mary. (2010). Story writing: The effects of self-regulated strategy development for second-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties. The Journal of Special Education. 44(2), pp. 107 - 128. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466908331044
Metacognition and strategies instruction in writing
Harris, Karen, Santangelo, Tanya and Graham, Steve. (2010). Metacognition and strategies instruction in writing. In In H S Waters and W Schneider (Ed.). pp. 226 - 256 Guilford.
Self-Regulated Strategy Development in Writing: Premises, Evolution and the Future
Harris, Karen and Graham, Steve. (2009). Self-Regulated Strategy Development in Writing: Premises, Evolution and the Future. British Journal of Educational Psychology.
Almost 30 years of writing research: Making sense of it all with The Wrath of Khan
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2009). Almost 30 years of writing research: Making sense of it all with The Wrath of Khan. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice. 24(2), pp. 58 - 68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2009.01277.x
Teaching composing to students with learning disabilities: Scientifically supported recommendations
Graham, Steve, Olinghouse, Natalie G. and Harris, Karen R.. (2009). Teaching composing to students with learning disabilities: Scientifically supported recommendations. In In Gary A. Troia (Ed.). Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices pp. 165 - 186 Guilford Press.
How do primary grade teachers teach handwriting? A National Survey
Graham, Steve, Harris, Karen, Mason, Linda H. and Fink-Chorzempa, Barbara. (2008). How do primary grade teachers teach handwriting? A National Survey. Reading and Writing.
Self-regulated strategy development in writing: Going beyond NLEs to a more balanced approach
Harris, Karen, Santangelo, Tanya and Graham, Steve. (2008). Self-regulated strategy development in writing: Going beyond NLEs to a more balanced approach. Instructional Science.
Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development to Support Students Who Have 'Trubol GitingThangs Into Werds'
Santangelo, Tanya, Harris, Karen and Graham, Steve. (2008). Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development to Support Students Who Have 'Trubol GitingThangs Into Werds'. Remedial and Special Education.
Michael Pressley's Contributions to the History and Future of Strategies Research
Harris, Karen, Alexander, Patricia and Graham, Steve. (2008). Michael Pressley's Contributions to the History and Future of Strategies Research. Educational Psychologist.
In Memory of Michael Pressley: A Role Model for 21st-Century Educational Psychologists
Graham, Steve and Harris, Karen. (2008). In Memory of Michael Pressley: A Role Model for 21st-Century Educational Psychologists. Educational Psychologist.
The effects of self-regulated strategy development on the writing performance of second-grade students with behavioral and writing difficulties
Lane, Kathleen Lynne, Harris, Karen, Graham, Steve and Weisenbach, Jessica L.. (2008). The effects of self-regulated strategy development on the writing performance of second-grade students with behavioral and writing difficulties. The Journal of Special Education.
Teaching spelling in the primary grades: A national survey of instructional practices and adaptations
Graham, Steve, Morphy, Paul, Harris, Karen and Fink-Chorzempa, Barbara. (2008). Teaching spelling in the primary grades: A national survey of instructional practices and adaptations. American Educational Research Journal.