Reduced bone modeling and unbalanced bone remodeling : Targets for antiresorptive and anabolic therapy
Ramchand, Sabashini and Seeman, Ego. (2020). Reduced bone modeling and unbalanced bone remodeling : Targets for antiresorptive and anabolic therapy. In In Stern, Paula H. (Ed.). Bone regulators and osteoporosis therapy pp. 423-450 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/164_2020_354
|Authors||Ramchand, Sabashini and Seeman, Ego|
|Editors||Stern, Paula H.|
Bone loss during advancing age is the net result of reduced modeling-based bone formation upon the outer (periosteal) envelope and unbalanced remodeling by basic multicellular units (BMUs) upon the three (intracortical, endocortical, and trabecular) components of the inner (endosteal) bone envelope. Each BMU deposits less bone than resorbed, reducing total bone volume and deteriorating the microstructure of the diminished residual bone volume.
Antiresorptive agents like bisphosphonates reduce, but do not abolish, the rate of bone remodeling – fewer BMUs remodel, “turn over,” the volume of bone. Residual unbalanced remodeling continues to slowly reduce total bone volume and deteriorate bone microstructure. By contrast, denosumab virtually abolishes remodeling so the decrease in bone volume and the deterioration in microstructure cease. The less remodeled matrix remains, leaving more time to complete the slow process of secondary mineralization which reduces the heterogeneity of matrix mineralization and allows it to become glycosylated, changes that may make the smaller and microstructurally deteriorated bone volume more brittle. Neither class of antiresorptive restores bone volume or its microstructure, despite increases in bone mineral density misleadingly suggesting otherwise. Nevertheless, these agents reduce vertebral and hip fractures by 50–60% but only reduce nonvertebral fractures by 20–30%.
Restoring bone volume, microstructure, and material composition, “curing” bone fragility, may be partly achieved using anabolic therapy. Teriparatide, and probably abaloparatide, produce mainly remodeling-based bone formation by acting on BMUs existing in their resorption, reversal, or formation phase at the time of treatment and by promoting bone formation in newly initiated BMUs. Romosozumab produces modeling-based bone formation almost exclusively and decreases the surface extent of bone resorption. All three anabolic agents reduce vertebral fracture risk relative to untreated controls; parathyroid hormone 1-34 and romosozumab reduce vertebral fracture risk more greatly than risedronate or alendronate, respectively. Evidence for nonvertebral or hip fracture risk reduction relative to untreated or antiresorptive-treated controls is lacking or inconsistent. Only one study suggests sequential romosozumab followed by alendronate reduces vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fracture risk compared to continuous alendronate alone. Whether combined antiresorptive and anabolic therapy result in superior fracture risk reduction than monotherapy is untested.
|Keywords||anabolic; antiresorptives; bone mineral density; fracture; osteoporosis|
|Book title||Bone regulators and osteoporosis therapy|
|Publisher||Springer Nature Switzerland AG|
|Place of publication||Cham, Switzerland|
|Series||Handbook of experimental pharmacology ; volume 262|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.1007/164_2020_354|
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|Online||31 Mar 2020|
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|Deposited||12 Apr 2022|
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