Perceived barriers and enablers to physical activity participation in people with Alopecia Areata : A constructivist grounded theory study

Journal article


Rajoo, Yamuna, Wong, J., Raj, I. S. and Kennedy, G. A.. (2020). Perceived barriers and enablers to physical activity participation in people with Alopecia Areata : A constructivist grounded theory study. BMC Psychology. 8(1), p. Article 132. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00502-5
AuthorsRajoo, Yamuna, Wong, J., Raj, I. S. and Kennedy, G. A.
Abstract

Background
Alopecia Areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that is characterised by hair loss. Individuals diagnosed with it often describe feelings of trauma and social rejection due to cosmetic repercussions and are at high risk of experiencing psychological distress. Physical activity (PA) participation has been associated with better mental health outcomes in diverse populations. A preliminary study of individuals with AA indicated that severe hair loss is associated with symptomatic depression, anxiety and stress, which negatively impacted PA participation. While strategies to increase PA participation in the general population have been established, little is known about PA participation in people with AA. This study aimed to understand barriers and enablers to PA participation in people with AA to inform the development of evidence-based interventions.

Methods
The study used a grounded theory (GT) methodology, relying on an iterative and simultaneous process of data collection, coding, theory development, and data comparisons to explore the perceived barriers and enablers to PA. Data were collected through a focus group (8 participants [33.38 ± 10.81 years]) and individual telephone interviews (8 participants [33.89 ± 11.87 years]). The study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Interview data were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed. Recruitment continued until theoretical saturation was achieved.

Results
The constructivist grounded theory method used has assisted to develop an explanatory model which is used to explain the themes for barriers and enablers to PA participation. The four phases in the explanatory model are as follows (1) onset of AA; (2) reaction towards the condition; (3) adjustment; and (4) acceptance.

Conclusion
The findings highlighted perceived barriers and enablers to PA participation in people with AA. Future interventions could consider addressing these barriers specifically to maximise effectiveness and to improve mental health status based on the phases of the explanatory model.

Keywordsphysical activity; Alopecia Areata; body image; mental health; anxiety; depression; stress; constructivist grounded theory; adjustment and acceptance
Year2020
JournalBMC Psychology
Journal citation8 (1), p. Article 132
PublisherBiomed Central Ltd
ISSN2050-7283
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00502-5
PubMed ID33303012
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85097419477
PubMed Central IDPMC7731756
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1-11
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online10 Dec 2020
Publication process dates
Accepted04 Dec 2020
Deposited24 May 2022
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