Perceptual representation of spam and phishing emails

Journal article


Patel, Pooja, Sarno, Dawn M., Lewis, Joanna E., Shoss, Mindy, Neider, Mark B. and Bohil, Corey J.. (2019). Perceptual representation of spam and phishing emails. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 33(6), pp. 1296-1304. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3594
AuthorsPatel, Pooja, Sarno, Dawn M., Lewis, Joanna E., Shoss, Mindy, Neider, Mark B. and Bohil, Corey J.
Abstract

Understanding how computer users allocate attention to features of potentially dangerous emails could help mitigate costly errors. Which features are salient? How stable is attention allocation across variation in email features? We attempted to measure the mental salience of several email features common in spam and/or phishing emails. We created two email sets: one in which messages contained company logos and urgent actionable links and one without these features. Participants rated pairwise similarity of emails within each set. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis was conducted to quantify psychological similarity between emails. A separate group rated the same emails for presence of five other features: important downloadable content, collecting personal information, account deletion or suspension, advertisement, and large images with clickable content. Regressing feature ratings onto the MDS coordinates revealed that similarity judgments were influenced mostly by advertisement/large images and collecting personal information, regardless of presence or absence of company logos and urgent actionable links.

Keywordscybersecurity; email; phishing; spam
Year2019
JournalApplied Cognitive Psychology
Journal citation33 (6), pp. 1296-1304
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
ISSN0888-4080
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3594
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85070714474
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1296-1304
Publisher's version
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online08 Aug 2019
Publication process dates
Accepted23 Jul 2019
Deposited02 Aug 2022
Permalink -

https://acuresearchbank.acu.edu.au/item/8y118/perceptual-representation-of-spam-and-phishing-emails

Restricted files

Publisher's version

  • 4
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 4
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month
These values are for the period from 19th October 2020, when this repository was created.

Export as

Related outputs

Coping with organizational layoffs : Managers’ increased active listening reduces job insecurity via perceived situational control
Kriz, Tiffany D., Jolly, Phillip M. and Shoss, Mindy. (2021). Coping with organizational layoffs : Managers’ increased active listening reduces job insecurity via perceived situational control. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 26(5), pp. 448-458. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000295
The conflicting impact of COVID-19’s health and economic crises on helping
Shoss, Mindy, Horan, Kristin A., DiStaso, Michael, LeNoble, Chelsea A. and Naranjo, Anthony. (2021). The conflicting impact of COVID-19’s health and economic crises on helping. Group and Organization Management. 46(1), pp. 3-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601120968704
Using machine learning to investigate the public's emotional responses to work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic
Min, Hanyi, Peng, Yisheng, Shoss, Mindy and Yang, Baojiang. (2021). Using machine learning to investigate the public's emotional responses to work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Applied Psychology. 106(2), pp. 214-229. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000886
Has the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the future of work or changed its course? Implications for research and practice
Ng, Matthew A., Naranjo, Anthony, Schlotzhauer, Ann E., Shoss, Mindy K., Kartvelishvili, Nika, Bartek, Matthew, Ingraham, Kenneth, Rodriguez, Alexis, Schneider, Sara Kira, Silverlieb-Seltzer, Lauren and Silva, Carolina. (2021). Has the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the future of work or changed its course? Implications for research and practice. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18(19), p. Article 10199. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910199
Sometimes it’s personal : Differential outcomes of person vs. job at risk threats to job security
Carusone, Nicole, Pittman, Rebecca and Shoss, Mindy. (2021). Sometimes it’s personal : Differential outcomes of person vs. job at risk threats to job security. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18(14), p. Article 7379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147379
When minor insecurities project large shadows : A profile analysis of cognitive and affective job insecurity
Naranjo, Anthony, Shoss, Mindy, Gebben, Alissa, DiStaso, Michael and Su, Shiyang. (2021). When minor insecurities project large shadows : A profile analysis of cognitive and affective job insecurity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 26(5), pp. 421-436. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000294
Ripple effects of supervisor counterproductive work behavior directed at the organization : Using affective events theory to predict subordinates’ decisions to enact CWB
Reynolds Kueny, Clair A., Frankca, Ellen, Shoss, Mindy K., Headrick, Lucille and Erb, Kaitlyn. (2020). Ripple effects of supervisor counterproductive work behavior directed at the organization : Using affective events theory to predict subordinates’ decisions to enact CWB. Human Performance. 33(5), pp. 355-377. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2020.1791871
A business frame perspective on why perceptions of top management's bottom-line mentality result in employees’ good and bad behaviors
Babalola, Mayowa, Greenbaum, Rebecca L., Amarnani, Rajiv, Shoss, Mindy, Deng, Yingli, Garba, Omale A. and Guo, Liang. (2020). A business frame perspective on why perceptions of top management's bottom-line mentality result in employees’ good and bad behaviors. Personnel Psychology. 73(1), pp. 19-41. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12355
Emotions running high : Examining the effects of supervisor and subordinate emotional stability on emotional exhaustion
David, Emily M., Shoss, Mindy K., Johnson, Lars U. and Alan Witt, L.. (2020). Emotions running high : Examining the effects of supervisor and subordinate emotional stability on emotional exhaustion. Journal of Research in Personality. 84, p. Article 103885. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2019.103885
The joint importance of secure and satisfying work : Insights from three studies
Shoss, Mindy K., Brummel, Bradley J., Probst, Tahira M. and Jiang, Lixin. (2020). The joint importance of secure and satisfying work : Insights from three studies. Journal of Business and Psychology. 35(3), pp. 297-316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-019-09627-w
Appraisal of economic crisis, psychological distress, and work-unit absenteeism : A 1-1-2 model
Montani, Francesco, Leon-Perez, Jose M., Giorgi, Gabriele and Shoss, Mindy K.. (2020). Appraisal of economic crisis, psychological distress, and work-unit absenteeism : A 1-1-2 model. Journal of Business and Psychology. 35(5), pp. 609-620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-019-09643-w