The nutrition for sport knowledge questionnaire (NSKQ) : Development and validation using classical test theory and Rasch analysis

Journal article


Trakman, Gina Louise, Forsyth, Adrienne, Hoye, Russell and Belski, Regina. (2017). The nutrition for sport knowledge questionnaire (NSKQ) : Development and validation using classical test theory and Rasch analysis. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 14(1), p. Article 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-017-0182-y
AuthorsTrakman, Gina Louise, Forsyth, Adrienne, Hoye, Russell and Belski, Regina
Abstract

Background
Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes’ nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate.

Methods
An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis.

Results
The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant (p < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation (r = 0.92, p < 0.001) between individuals’ scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model.

Conclusions
The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic calibres.

Keywordsnutrition knowledge; sports nutrition; questionnaire; measure; valid; classical test theory; Rasch analysis
Year2017
JournalJournal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Journal citation14 (1), p. Article 26
PublisherBioMed Central
ISSN1550-2783
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-017-0182-y
PubMed ID28785177
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85026745998
PubMed Central IDPMC5543556
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1-11
FunderAustralian Government
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online01 Apr 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted27 Jul 2017
Deposited17 Aug 2022
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