Packing computing servers into the vessel of an underwater data center considering cooling efficiency

Journal article


Hu, Zhi-Hua, Zheng, Yu-Xin and Wang, You-Gan. (2022). Packing computing servers into the vessel of an underwater data center considering cooling efficiency. Applied Energy. 314, p. Article 118986. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.118986
AuthorsHu, Zhi-Hua, Zheng, Yu-Xin and Wang, You-Gan
Abstract

An Underwater Data Center (UDC) is an underwater vessel full of computing servers and designed with a cooling system using cold water in the ocean. A UDC vessel is composed of cabinets for computing servers, and the cabinets are finally packed into racks that facilitate the installments of the computing servers. We formulate the problem of packing cabinets into the vessel by considering the water volume required for server cooling and the placement of the cabinets of servers. Due to different patterns of racks, a set of mixed-integer linear programs were developed, and they were solved by methods with several stages. As demonstrated by experiments, the proposed models and strategies effectively solve the simulated instances generated by considering the cooling principles. The cabinets with more considerable differences in their width and height are better than single-sized cabinets because the smaller cabinets make the packing process more flexible. Moreover, multi-sized cabinet packing is significantly better than single-sized cabinet packing. Additionally, it is not always appropriate to use racks with large capacities. However, racks with multiple capacities may improve the space and energy utilization degrees when the size and the designed heat power consumption of the data center are fixed.

Keywordsunderwater data center; packing optimization; cooling system; data centers; mixed-integer linear program
Year2022
JournalApplied Energy
Journal citation314, p. Article 118986
PublisherElsevier Ltd
ISSN0306-2619
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.118986
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85127045602
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1-18
FunderNational Natural Science Foundation of China
Publisher's version
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online30 Mar 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted20 Mar 2022
Deposited24 Aug 2022
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