A convergent mixed methods study of cardiovascular disease risk factors among young black men in the United States
Brawner, Bridgette M., Talley, Lloyd M., Baker, Jillian L., Bowleg, Lisa, Dominique, Tiffany B., Robinson, Daiquiri Y., Riegel, Barbara and The Black Men’s Health Initiative of the Penn Center for AIDS Research. (2022). A convergent mixed methods study of cardiovascular disease risk factors among young black men in the United States. Ethnicity and Disease. 32(3), pp. 169-184. https://doi.org/10.18865/ed.32.3.169
|Authors||Brawner, Bridgette M., Talley, Lloyd M., Baker, Jillian L., Bowleg, Lisa, Dominique, Tiffany B., Robinson, Daiquiri Y., Riegel, Barbara and The Black Men’s Health Initiative of the Penn Center for AIDS Research|
Background: An understanding of the factors that influence cardiovascular (CVD) risk among young Black men is critically needed to promote cardiovascular health earlier in the life course and prevent poor outcomes later in life.
Purpose: To explore how individual (eg, depression, racial discrimination) and environmental factors (eg, neighborhood resources) are associated with CVD risk factors among young Black men.
Methods: We conducted a convergent mixed methods study (qualitative/quantitative, QUAL+quant) with Black men aged 18 to 30 years (N = 21; 3 focus groups). Participants completed a self-administered electronic survey immediately prior to the focus groups.
Results: Participants (Mage = 23) reported: two or more CVD risk factors (75%; eg, high blood pressure); racial discrimination (32%); and depressive symptoms in the past 2 weeks (50%). Five themes emerged: 1) emergence and navigation of Black manhood stressors; 2) high expectations despite limited available resources; 3) heart disease socialization: explicit and vicarious experiences; 4) managing health care needs against fear, avoidance and toughing it out; and 5) camaraderie and social support can motivate or deter. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses highlight race, gender, and class intersectionality factors that are relevant to what it means to be young, Black, male and of lower socioeconomic status in the United States.
Conclusion: Our findings help to identify modifiable, culturally specific and contextually relevant factors that relate to CVD risk factors among young Black men. Such work is crucial to inform interventions, primary prevention efforts, policies, and social-structural changes to thwart the development of CVD and advanced disease stages.
|Keywords||black; cardiovascular disease; discrimination; health equity; men; mixed methods|
|Journal||Ethnicity and Disease|
|Journal citation||32 (3), pp. 169-184|
|Publisher||International Society on Hypertension in Blacks|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.18865/ed.32.3.169|
|Funder||Medical University of South Carolina|
|University of Pennsylvania|
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|Publication process dates|
|Deposited||07 Dec 2022|
|Grant ID||NIMHD 1U54MD010706|
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