Lifestyle factors as mediators of area-level socio-economic differentials in cardiovascular disease risk factors. The Tromso Study
Tiwari, Sweta, Cerin, Ester, Wilsgaard, Tom, Løvsletten, Ola, Njølstad, Inger, Grimsgaard, Sameline, Hopstock, Laila, Schirmer, Henrik, Rosengren, Annika, Kristoffersen, Kathrin and Loechen, Maja-Lisa. (2022). Lifestyle factors as mediators of area-level socio-economic differentials in cardiovascular disease risk factors. The Tromso Study. Social Science and Medicine – Population Health. 19, pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2022.101241
|Authors||Tiwari, Sweta, Cerin, Ester, Wilsgaard, Tom, Løvsletten, Ola, Njølstad, Inger, Grimsgaard, Sameline, Hopstock, Laila, Schirmer, Henrik, Rosengren, Annika, Kristoffersen, Kathrin and Loechen, Maja-Lisa|
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death and disability and living in areas with low socio-economic status (SES) is associated with increased risk of CVD. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, an unhealthy diet and harmful alcohol use are main risk factors that contribute to other modifiable risk factors, such as hypertension, raised blood cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes. The potential impact of area-level socio-economic status (ASES) on metabolic CVD risk factors via lifestyle behaviors independent of individual SES has not been investigated previously.
Aims: To estimate associations of ASES with CVD risk factors and the mediating role of lifestyle behaviors independent of individual-level SES.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 19,415 participants (52% women) from the seventh survey of the Tromsø Study (2015–2016) (Tromsø7). The exposure variable ASES was created by aggregating individual-level SES variables (education, income, housing ownership) at the geographical subdivision level. Individual-level SES data and geographical subdivision of Tromsø municipality (36 areas) were obtained from Statistics Norway. Variables from questionnaires and clinical examinations obtained from Tromsø7 were used as mediators (smoking, snuff, alcohol, and physical activity), while the outcome variables were body mass index (BMI), total/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio, waist circumference, hypertension, diabetes. Mediation and mediated moderation analysis were performed with age as a moderator, stratified by sex.
Results: ASES was significantly associated with all outcome variables. CVD risk factor level declined with an increase in ASES. These associations were mediated by differences in smoking habits, alcohol use and physical activity. The associations of ASES with total/HDL cholesterol ratio and waist circumference (women) were moderated by age, and the moderating effects were mediated by smoking and physical activity in both sexes. The largest mediated effects were seen in the associations of ASES with total/HDL cholesterol ratio, with the mediators accounting for 43% of the observed effects.
Conclusions: Living in lower SES areas is associated with increased CVD risk due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking, alcohol use and physical inactivity. These associations were stronger in women and among older participants.
|Keywords||Area level socio-economic status; Cardiovascular disease; Risk factors; Mediation|
|Year||01 Jan 2022|
|Journal||Social Science and Medicine – Population Health|
|Journal citation||19, pp. 1-13|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2022.101241|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC9530956|
|Web address (URL)||https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827322002208|
|Open access||Published as green open access|
|Research or scholarly||Research|
File Access Level
|Online||24 Sep 2022|
|Publication process dates|
|Accepted||23 Sep 2022|
|Deposited||10 Jan 2023|
© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
|Place of publication||United Kingdom|
|License: CC BY 4.0|
|File access level: Open|
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