Intersection of diet and exercise with the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites in male bodybuilders : A pilot study

Journal article


Luk, Alison W. S., Mitchell, Lachlan, Koay, Yen Chin, O’Sullivan, John F., O’Connor, Helen, Hackett, Daniel A. and Holmes, Andrew. (2022). Intersection of diet and exercise with the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites in male bodybuilders : A pilot study. Metabolites. 12(10), p. Article 911. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12100911
AuthorsLuk, Alison W. S., Mitchell, Lachlan, Koay, Yen Chin, O’Sullivan, John F., O’Connor, Helen, Hackett, Daniel A. and Holmes, Andrew
Abstract

Diet, exercise and the gut microbiome are all factors recognised to be significant contributors to cardiometabolic health. However, diet and exercise interventions to modify the gut microbiota to improve health are limited by poor understanding of the interactions between them. In this pilot study, we explored diet–exercise–microbiome dynamics in bodybuilders as they represent a distinctive group that typically employ well-defined dietary strategies and exercise regimes to alter their body composition. We performed longitudinal characterisation of diet, exercise, the faecal microbial community composition and serum metabolites in five bodybuilders during competition preparation and post-competition. All participants reduced fat mass while conserving lean mass during competition preparation, corresponding with dietary energy intake and exercise load, respectively. There was individual variability in food choices that aligned to individualised gut microbial community compositions throughout the study. However, there was a common shift from a high protein, low carbohydrate diet during pre-competition to a more macronutrient-balanced diet post-competition, which was associated with similar changes in the gut microbial diversity across participants. The circulating metabolite profiles also reflected individuality, but a subset of metabolites relating to lipid metabolism distinguished between pre- and post-competition. Changes in the gut microbiome and circulating metabolome were distinct for each individual, but showed common patterns. We conclude that further longitudinal studies will have greater potential than cross-sectional studies in informing personalisation of diet and exercise regimes to enhance exercise outcomes and improve health.

Keywordspersonalised diet; athletes; gut microbiota; macronutrient ratio
Year2022
JournalMetabolites
Journal citation12 (10), p. Article 911
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI AG)
ISSN2218-1989
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12100911
PubMed ID36295813
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85140743551
PubMed Central IDPMC9608465
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Page range1-13
FunderSports Dietitians Australia
University of Sydney
Heart Research Institute, New South Wales
Collaborative Research Network for Advancing Exercise and Sports Science (CRN-AESS)
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online27 Sep 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted21 Sep 2022
Deposited20 Jan 2023
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