Writing motivation questionnaire : Validation and application as a formative assessment

Journal article


Graham, Steve, Harbaugh-Schattenkirk, Allen G., Aitken, Angelique, Harris, Karen R., Ng, Clarence, Ray, Amber, Wilson, John M. and Wdowin, Jeanne. (2022). Writing motivation questionnaire : Validation and application as a formative assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. 29(2), pp. 238-261. https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2022.2080178
AuthorsGraham, Steve, Harbaugh-Schattenkirk, Allen G., Aitken, Angelique, Harris, Karen R., Ng, Clarence, Ray, Amber, Wilson, John M. and Wdowin, Jeanne
Abstract

This study evaluated the validity of a multi-dimensional measure of motives for writing. Based on an earlier instrument and theoretical conceptualisations of writing beliefs, we developed the Writing Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ). A sample of 2,186 fourth- (558 girls; 521 boys) and fifth-grade students (546 girls; 561 boys) completed 28 writing motivation items assessing seven motives for writing. Two of these motives addressed intrinsic reasons for writing (curiosity, involvement); three motives assessed extrinsic reasons (grades, competition, and social recognition); and two motives examined self-regulatory reasons (emotional regulation, relief from boredom). Confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesised structure of the WMQ, and each of the seven motives evidenced adequate reliability for research purposes. Measurement invariance was established for grades four and five students, girls and boys, White and non-White students, children receiving or not receiving free/reduced lunch, and students receiving or not receiving special education services. The WMQ predicted students’ writing performance.

Keywordswriting motivation; assessment; elementary grades
Year2022
JournalAssessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice
Journal citation29 (2), pp. 238-261
PublisherRoutledge
ISSN0969-594X
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2022.2080178
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85131081206
Page range238-261
Publisher's version
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online25 May 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted15 May 2022
Deposited29 Jun 2023
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