Sleep regularity and predictors of sleep efficiency and sleep duration in elite team sport athletes

Journal article


Halson, Shona L., Johnston, Rich D., Piromalli, Laura, Lalor, Benita J., Cormack, Stuart, Roach, Gregory D. and Sargent, Charli. (2022). Sleep regularity and predictors of sleep efficiency and sleep duration in elite team sport athletes. Sports Medicine - Open. 8(1), p. Article 79. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-022-00470-7
AuthorsHalson, Shona L., Johnston, Rich D., Piromalli, Laura, Lalor, Benita J., Cormack, Stuart, Roach, Gregory D. and Sargent, Charli
Abstract

Background
Many elite athletes have suboptimal sleep duration and efficiency, potentially due to factors that may impact sleep onset and offset times. Variability in sleep onset and offset may negatively influence sleep. The sleep regularity index (SRI) is a novel metric for sleep regularity, however there are no published descriptions of SRI in elite athletes. Further, contributors to sleep efficiency and duration in elite athletes using objective measures have not been explored.

Methods
Sleep was monitored over a minimum of seven consecutive days (7 to 43)—in 203 elite team sport athletes (age range = 19–36 years; female, n = 79; male, n = 124, total sleep nights = 1975) using activity monitoring and sleep diaries. The sleep regularity index (SRI) was calculated to reflect the night-to-night shifts in sleep by accounting for changes in sleep onset and sleep offset. Sleep characteristics were compared between regular and irregular sleepers and important contributors to sleep efficiency and total sleep time were assessed using multiple linear regression models.

Results
The median sleep regularity index and interquartile range were 85.1 (81.4 to 88.8). When compared to irregular sleepers, regular sleepers demonstrated (1) significantly greater sleep efficiency (p = 0.006; 0.31 medium effect size [ES]), (2) significantly less variability in total sleep time (− p ≤ 0.001; − 0.69, large ES) and sleep efficiency (− 0.34, small ES), (3) similar total sleep time and (4) significantly less variation in sleep onset (p ≤ 0.001; − 0.73, large ES) and offset (p ≤ 0.001; − 0.74, large ES) times. Sleep characteristics explained 73% and 22% of the variance in total sleep time and sleep efficiency, respectively. The most important contributor to total sleep time was a later sleep offset time, while the most important contributors to sleep efficiency were an earlier bedtime and less variable sleep onset times.

Conclusions
Bedtime and a consistent sleep onset time are important factors associated with sleep efficiency in athletes, while sleep offset is an important factor for total sleep time. Coaches and staff can assist their athletes by providing training schedules that allow for both regularity and sufficiency of time in bed where possible.

Keywordssleep regularity index; athlete; team sport; variability
Year2022
JournalSports Medicine - Open
Journal citation8 (1), p. Article 79
PublisherSpringerOpen
ISSN2199-1170
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-022-00470-7
PubMed ID35713743
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85132124609
PubMed Central IDPMC9206056
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Page range1-10
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online17 Jun 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted01 Jun 2022
Deposited12 Jul 2023
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Preparing for an Australian Football League Women's League season
Thornton, Heidi Rose, Armstrong, Cameron R., Rigby, Alex, Minahan, Clare L., Johnston, Rich D. and Duthie, Grant Malcolm. (2020). Preparing for an Australian Football League Women's League season. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2, p. Article 608939. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.608939
Validity of real-time ultra-wideband global navigation satellite system data generated by a wearable microtechnology unit
Johnston, Rich D., Hewitt, Adam and Duthie, Grant. (2020). Validity of real-time ultra-wideband global navigation satellite system data generated by a wearable microtechnology unit. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(7), pp. 2071-2075. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003059
Unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training does not transfer equally to sprint and change of direction performance
Appleby, Brendyn B., Cormack, Stuart J. and Newton, Robert U.. (2020). Unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training does not transfer equally to sprint and change of direction performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(1), pp. 54-64. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003035
A validation study of the WHOOP strap against polysomnography to assess sleep
Miller, Dean J., Lastella, Michele, Scanlan, Aaron T., Bellenger, Clint, Halson, Shona L., Roach, Gregory D. and Sargent, Charli. (2020). A validation study of the WHOOP strap against polysomnography to assess sleep. Journal of Sports Sciences. 38(22), pp. 2631-2636. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1797448
A complex relationship : Sleep, external training load, and well-being in elite Australian footballers
Lalor, Benita J., Halson, Shona L., Tran, Jacqueline, Kemp, Justin G. and Cormack, Stuart J.. (2020). A complex relationship : Sleep, external training load, and well-being in elite Australian footballers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15(6), pp. 777-787. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0061
Validity and reliability of methods to determine barbell displacement in heavy back squats : Implications for velocity-based training
Appleby, Brendyn B., Banyard, Harry, Cormack, Stuart J. and Newton, Robert U.. (2020). Validity and reliability of methods to determine barbell displacement in heavy back squats : Implications for velocity-based training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(11), pp. 3118-3123. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002803
The impact of training load on sleep during a 14-Day training camp in elite, adolescent, female basketball players
Michele, Lastella, Gregory, D. Roach, Grace, E. Vincent, Aaron, T. Scanlan, Shona, L. Halson and Charli, Sargent. (2020). The impact of training load on sleep during a 14-Day training camp in elite, adolescent, female basketball players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15(5), pp. 724-730. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0157
Perceptions and use of recovery strategies : Do swimmers and coaches believe they are effective?
Shell, Stephanie J., Slattery, Katie, Clark, Brad, Broatch, James R., Halson, Shona, Kellmann, Michael and Coutts, Aaron J.. (2020). Perceptions and use of recovery strategies : Do swimmers and coaches believe they are effective? Journal of Sports Sciences. 38(18), pp. 2092-2099. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1770925
Optimisation and validation of a nutritional intervention to enhance sleep quality and quantity
Halson, Shona L., Shaw, Gregory, Versey, Nathan, Miller, Dean J., Sargent, Charli, Roach, Gregory D., Nyman, Lara, Carter, James M. and Baar, Keith. (2020). Optimisation and validation of a nutritional intervention to enhance sleep quality and quantity. Nutrients. 12(9), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092579
Obstructive sleep apnea in professional rugby league athletes : An exploratory study
Caia, Johnpaul, Halson, Shona L., Scott, Andrew and Kelly, Vincent G.. (2020). Obstructive sleep apnea in professional rugby league athletes : An exploratory study. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 23(11), pp. 1011-1015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.04.014
Compression garments reduce muscle movement and activation during submaximal running
Broatch, James R., Brophy-Williams, N. E. D., Phillips, Elissa J., O’Bryan, Steven J., Halson, Shona L., Barnes, Shannon and Bishop, David J.. (2020). Compression garments reduce muscle movement and activation during submaximal running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 52(3), pp. 685-695. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002182
Resistance training upregulates skeletal muscle Na+, K+-ATPase content, with elevations in both α1 and α2, but not β isoforms
Altarawneh, Muath M., Petersen, Aaron C., Farr, Trevor, Garnham, Andrew, Broatch, James R., Halson, Shona, Bishop, David J. and McKenna, Michael J.. (2020). Resistance training upregulates skeletal muscle Na+, K+-ATPase content, with elevations in both α1 and α2, but not β isoforms. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 120(8), pp. 1777-1785. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04408-3
How to manage travel fatigue and jet lag in athletes? A systematic review of interventions
Janse van Rensburg, Dina C., Jansen van Rensburg, Audrey, Fowler, Peter, Fullagar, Hugh, Stevens, David, Halson, Shona, Bender, Amy, Vincent, Grace, Claassen-Smithers, Amanda, Dunican, Ian, Roach, Gregory Daniel, Sargent, Charli, Lastella, Michele and Cronje, Tanita. (2020). How to manage travel fatigue and jet lag in athletes? A systematic review of interventions. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 54(16), pp. 960-968. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-101635
Factors that impact self-reported wellness scores in elite Australian Footballers
Ruddy, Joshua D., Cormack, Stuart, Timmins, Ryan G., Sakadjian, Alex, Pietsch, Samuel, Carey, David L., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A.. (2020). Factors that impact self-reported wellness scores in elite Australian Footballers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 52(6), pp. 1427-1435. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002244
Measuring the response to simulated fixture congestion in soccer
Tofari, Paul J., Kemp, Justin G. and Cormack, Stuart J.. (2020). Measuring the response to simulated fixture congestion in soccer. Science and Medicine in Football. 4(4), pp. 293-304. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2020.1746824
Changes in subjective mental and physical fatigue during netball games in elite development athletes
Russell, Suzanna, Jenkins, David, Halson, Shona and Kelly, Vincent. (2020). Changes in subjective mental and physical fatigue during netball games in elite development athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 23(6), pp. 615-620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.12.017
The Challenge of Maintaining Metabolic Health During a Global Pandemic
Andy J. King, Louise M. Burke, Shona L. Halson and John A. Hawley. (2020). The Challenge of Maintaining Metabolic Health During a Global Pandemic. Sports Medicine. 50(7), pp. 1233-1241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01295-8
Key viral immune genes and pathways identify elite athletes with URS
Colbey, Candice, Drew, Michael K., Cox, Amanda J., Vider, Jelena, Pyne, David B., Vlahovich, Nicole, Hughes, David, Waddington, Gordon, Appaneal, Renee, Burke, Louise M., Lundy, Bronwen, Toomey, Mary, Watts, David, Lovell, Gregory, Praet, Stephan, Halson, Shona L., Welvaert, Marijke, Zhang, Ping, Cripps, Allan W. and West, Nicholas P. (2020). Key viral immune genes and pathways identify elite athletes with URS. Exercise Immunology Review. 26, pp. 56-78.
Criterion validity, and interunit and between-day reliability of the FLEX for measuring barbell velocity during commonly used resistance training exercises
Weakley, Jonathon, Chalkley, Daniel, Johnston, Rich, García-Ramos, Amador, Townshend, Andrew, Dorrell, Harry, Pearson, Madison, Morrison, Matthew and Cole, Michael. (2020). Criterion validity, and interunit and between-day reliability of the FLEX for measuring barbell velocity during commonly used resistance training exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(6), pp. 1519 - 1524. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003592
Modeling the risk of team sport injuries : A narrative review of different statistical approaches
Ruddy, Joshua D., Cormack, Stuart J., Whiteley, Rod, Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Opar, David A.. (2019). Modeling the risk of team sport injuries : A narrative review of different statistical approaches. Frontiers in Physiology. 10, p. Article 829.
The application of mental fatigue research to elite team sport performance : New perspectives
Russell, Suzanna, Jenkins, David, Smith, Mitchell, Halson, Shona and Kelly, Vincent. (2019). The application of mental fatigue research to elite team sport performance : New perspectives. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 22(6), pp. 723-728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.12.008
Sleep monitoring in athletes : Motivation, methods, miscalculations and why it matters
Halson, Shona. (2019). Sleep monitoring in athletes : Motivation, methods, miscalculations and why it matters. Sports Medicine. 49(10), pp. 1487-1497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01119-4
Validity of real-time ultra-wideband global navigation satellite system data generated by a wearable microtechnology unit
Johnston, Rich D., Hewitt, Adam and Duthie, Grant. (2019). Validity of real-time ultra-wideband global navigation satellite system data generated by a wearable microtechnology unit. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(7), pp. 2071-2075. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003059
Session availability as a result of prior injury impacts the risk of subsequent non-contact lower limb injury in elite male australian footballers
Ruddy, Joshua D., Pietsch, Samuel, Maniar, Nirav, Cormack, Stuart J., Timmins, Ryan G., Williams, Morgan D., Carey, David L. and Opar, David A.. (2019). Session availability as a result of prior injury impacts the risk of subsequent non-contact lower limb injury in elite male australian footballers. Frontiers in Physiology. 10, p. 737. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00737
What is mental fatigue in elite sport? Perceptions from athletes and staff
Russell, Suzanna, Jenkins, David, Rynne, Steven, Halson, Shona L. and Kelly, Vincent. (2019). What is mental fatigue in elite sport? Perceptions from athletes and staff. European Journal of Sport Science. 19(10), pp. 1367-1376. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1618397
The influence of pre-season training loads on in-season match activities in professional Australian football players
Johnston, Rich D., Murray, Nicholas B. and Austin, Damien J.. (2019). The influence of pre-season training loads on in-season match activities in professional Australian football players. Science and Medicine in Football. 3(2), pp. 143-149. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2018.1501160
Sub-maximal heart rate is associated with changes in high-intensity intermittent running ability in professional rugby league players
Hulin, Billy T., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Rich D. and Jenkins, David G.. (2019). Sub-maximal heart rate is associated with changes in high-intensity intermittent running ability in professional rugby league players. Science and Medicine in Football. 3(1), pp. 50-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2018.1475748
Sleep patterns and alertness in an elite super rugby team during a game week
Dunican, Ian C., Higgin, Charles C., Murray, Kevin, Jones, Maddison J., Dawson, Brian, Caldwell, John A., Halson, Shona L. and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2019). Sleep patterns and alertness in an elite super rugby team during a game week. Journal of Human Kinetics. 67(1), pp. 111-121. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0088
Sleep and salivary testosterone and cortisol during a short preseason camp : A study in professional rugby union
Serpell, Benjamin G., Horgan, Barry G., Colomer, Carmen M. E., Field, Byron, Halson, Shona L. and Cook, Christian J.. (2019). Sleep and salivary testosterone and cortisol during a short preseason camp : A study in professional rugby union. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(6), pp. 796-804. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0600
Reliability of squat kinetics in well-trained rugby players: implications for monitoring training
Appleby, Brendyn B., Cormack, Stuart J. and Newton, Robert U.. (2019). Reliability of squat kinetics in well-trained rugby players: implications for monitoring training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(10), pp. 2635-2640. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003289
Kinetics and kinematics of the squat and step-up in well-trained rugby players
Appleby, Brendyn B., Newton, Robert U. and Cormack, Stuart J.. (2019). Kinetics and kinematics of the squat and step-up in well-trained rugby players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33, pp. 36-44. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003055
Effects of various recovery strategies on repeated bouts of simulated intermittent activity
Crowther, Fiona A., Sealey, Rebecca M., Crowe, Melissa J., Edwards, Andrew M. and Halson, Shona L.. (2019). Effects of various recovery strategies on repeated bouts of simulated intermittent activity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(7), pp. 1781-1794. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002396
Effects of high-intensity interval training on olympic combat sports athletes' performance and physiological adaptation : A systematic review
Franchini, Emerson, Cormack, Stuart and Takito, Monica Y.. (2019). Effects of high-intensity interval training on olympic combat sports athletes' performance and physiological adaptation : A systematic review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(1), pp. 242-252. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002957
Improving the reporting of tennis injuries : The use of workload data as the denominator?
Reid, Machar, Cormack, Stuart J., Duffield, Rob, Kovalchik, Stephanie, Crespo, Miguel, Pluim, Babette and Gescheit, Danielle T.. (2019). Improving the reporting of tennis injuries : The use of workload data as the denominator? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 53(16), pp. 1041-1042. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098625
Cold water immersion attenuates anabolic signaling and skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, but not strength gain, following whole-body resistance training
Fyfe, Jackson J., Broatch, James R., Trewin, Adam J., Hanson, Erik D., Argus, Christos K., Garnham, Andrew P., Halson, Shona L., Polman, Remco C., Bishop, David J. and Petersen, Aaron C.. (2019). Cold water immersion attenuates anabolic signaling and skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, but not strength gain, following whole-body resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology. 127(5), pp. 1403-1418. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00127.2019
Specificity and transfer of lower-body strength : Influence of bilateral or unilateral lower-body resistance training
Appleby, Brendyn B., Cormack, Stuart J. and Newton, Robert U.. (2019). Specificity and transfer of lower-body strength : Influence of bilateral or unilateral lower-body resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(2), pp. 1064-8011. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002923
Relationships between model-predicted and actual match-play exercise-intensity performance in professional Australian footballers during a preseason training macrocycle
Graham, Stuart R., Cormack, Stuart, Parfitt, Gaynor and Eston, Roger. (2019). Relationships between model-predicted and actual match-play exercise-intensity performance in professional Australian footballers during a preseason training macrocycle. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(2), pp. 232-238. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0752
Rating of perceived challenge as a measure of internal load for technical skill performance
Hendricks, Sharief, Till, Kevin, Oliver, Jon L., Johnston, Rich D., Attwood, Matthew J., Brown, James Craig, Drake, David, MacLeod, Simon, Mellalieu, Stephen D. and Jones, Ben. (2019). Rating of perceived challenge as a measure of internal load for technical skill performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 53(10), pp. 611-613. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099871
Nutrition for travel : From jet lag to catering
Halson, Shona L., Burke, Louise M. and Pearce, Jeni. (2019). Nutrition for travel : From jet lag to catering. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 29(2), pp. 228-235. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0278
The effects of cold water immersion on the amount and quality of sleep obtained by elite cyclists during a simulated hill climbing tour
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, G. D., Halson, Shona and Sargent, C.. (2019). The effects of cold water immersion on the amount and quality of sleep obtained by elite cyclists during a simulated hill climbing tour. Sport Sciences for Health. 15(1), pp. 223 - 228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-018-0522-6
Using microtechnology to quantify torso angle during match-play in field hockey
Warman, Geoffrey Ernest, Cole, Michael H., Chalkley, Daniel, Johnston, richard and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2019). Using microtechnology to quantify torso angle during match-play in field hockey. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(10), pp. 2648 - 2654. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003238
Effects of sports compression socks on performance, physiological, and hematological alterations after long-haul air travel in elite female volleyballers
Broatch, James R., Bishop, David J., Zadow, Emma K. and Halson, Shona. (2019). Effects of sports compression socks on performance, physiological, and hematological alterations after long-haul air travel in elite female volleyballers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(2), pp. 492-501. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003002
The influence of contextual factors on running performance in female Australian football match-play
Black, Georgia M., Gabbett, Tim, Naughton, Geraldine, Cole, Michael H., Johnston, Richard and Dawson, Brian. (2019). The influence of contextual factors on running performance in female Australian football match-play. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(9), pp. 2488 - 2495. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002142
Influence of physical characteristics and match outcome on technical errors during rugby league match play
Johnston, Richard. (2019). Influence of physical characteristics and match outcome on technical errors during rugby league match play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(8), pp. 1043 - 1049. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0354
The peak duration-specific locomotor demands and concurrent collision frequencies of European Super League rugby
Weaving, Dan, Sawczuk, Thomas, Williams, Sean, Scott, Tannath, Till, Kevin, Beggs, Clive, Johnston, Rich D. and Jones, Ben. (2019). The peak duration-specific locomotor demands and concurrent collision frequencies of European Super League rugby. Journal of Sports Sciences. 37(3), pp. 322-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1500425
Monitoring athletes during training camps : Observations and translatable strategies from elite road cyclists and swimmers
Saw, Anna E., Halson, Shona L. and Mujika, Iñigo. (2018). Monitoring athletes during training camps : Observations and translatable strategies from elite road cyclists and swimmers. Sports. 6(3), p. Article 63. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030063
Technical skill training framework and skill load measurements for the rugby union tackle
Hendricks, Sharief, Till, Kevin, Oliver, Jon L., Johnston, Rich D., Attwood, Matthew, Brown, James, Drake, David, MacLeod, Simon, Mellalieu, Stephen D., Treu, Paul and Jones, Ben. (2018). Technical skill training framework and skill load measurements for the rugby union tackle. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 40(5), pp. 44-59. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000400
Longer sleep durations are positively associated with finishing place during a national multiday netball competition
Laura E. Juliff, Shona Halson, Jeffrey J. Hebert, Peta L. Forsyth and Jeremiah John Peiffer. (2018). Longer sleep durations are positively associated with finishing place during a national multiday netball competition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 32(1), pp. 189-194. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001793
Effects of training and competition load on neuromuscular recovery, testosterone, cortisol, and match performance during a season of professional football
Amber E. Rowell, Robert Aughey, W. G. Hopkins, Alizera Esmaeili, Brendan H. Lazarus and Stuart Cormack. (2018). Effects of training and competition load on neuromuscular recovery, testosterone, cortisol, and match performance during a season of professional football. Frontiers in Physiology. 9(668), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00668
A standardized small sided game can be used to monitor neuromuscular fatigue in professional A-league football players
Amber E. Rowell, Robert Aughey, Jo Clubb and Stuart Cormack. (2018). A standardized small sided game can be used to monitor neuromuscular fatigue in professional A-league football players. Frontiers in Physiology. 8(August), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01011
A multi-year injury epidemiology analysis of an elite national junior tennis program
Gescheit, Danielle, Cormack, Stuart, Duffield, Rob, Kovalchik, Stephanie, Wood, Tim O., Omizzolo, Melanie and Reid, Machar. (2018). A multi-year injury epidemiology analysis of an elite national junior tennis program. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 22(1), pp. 11-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.06.006
Can sleep be used as an indicator of overreaching and overtraining in athletes?
Michelle Lastella, Grace E. Vincent, Rob Duffield, Gregory D. Roach, Shona Halson, Luke J. Heales and Charli Sargent. (2018). Can sleep be used as an indicator of overreaching and overtraining in athletes? Frontiers in Physiology. 9, pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00436
Recovery and performance in sport: Consensus statement
Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, Wolfgang Kallus, R Meeusen, I Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann. (2018). Recovery and performance in sport: Consensus statement. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(2), pp. 240-245. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0759
Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: A tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes
Matthew W Driller, Cheri D Mah and Shona Halson. (2018). Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: A tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes. Sleep Science. 11(1), pp. 37-44.
The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists
Woods, Amy L., Rice, Anthony J., Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Wallett, Alice M., Lundy, Bronwen, Rogers, Margot A., Welvaert, Marijke, Halson, Shona, McKune, Andrew and Thompson, Kevin G.. (2018). The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists. PLoS ONE. 13(2), pp. 1 - 24. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191644
An integrated, multifactorial approach to periodization for optimal performance in individual and team sports
Mujika, Iñigo, Halson, Shona, Burke, Louise M., Balagué, Gloria and Farrow, Damian. (2018). An integrated, multifactorial approach to periodization for optimal performance in individual and team sports. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(5), pp. 538 - 561. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0093
No compromise of competition sleep compared with habitual sleep in elite Australian footballers
Lalor, Benita J., Halson, Shona L., Tran, Jacqueline, Kemp, Justin G. and Cormack, Stuart J.. (2018). No compromise of competition sleep compared with habitual sleep in elite Australian footballers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(1), pp. 29 - 36. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0776
Evening electronic device use: The effects on alertness, sleep and next-day physical performance in athletes
Jones, Maddison J., Peeling, Peter, Dawson, Brian, Halson, Shona, Miller, Joanna, Dunican, Ian C., Clarke, Michael W., Goodman, Craig and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2018). Evening electronic device use: The effects on alertness, sleep and next-day physical performance in athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences. 36(2), pp. 162 - 170. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1287936
Self-paced team-sport match simulation results in reductions in voluntary activation and modifications to biological, perceptual, and performance measures at halftime and for up to 96 hours postmatch
Tofari, Paul J., Kemp, Justin G. and Cormack, Stuart J.. (2018). Self-paced team-sport match simulation results in reductions in voluntary activation and modifications to biological, perceptual, and performance measures at halftime and for up to 96 hours postmatch. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 32(12), pp. 3552 - 3563. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001875
The psychomotor vigilance test: A comparison of different test durations in elite athletes
Jones, Maddison J., Dunican, Ian C., Murray, Kevin, Peeling, Peter, Dawson, Brian, Halson, Shona, Miller, Joanna and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2018). The psychomotor vigilance test: A comparison of different test durations in elite athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences. 36(18), pp. 2033 - 2037. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1433443
Lower limb sports compression garments improve muscle blood flow and exercise performance during repeated-sprint cycling
Broatch, James R., Bishop, David J. and Halson, Shona. (2018). Lower limb sports compression garments improve muscle blood flow and exercise performance during repeated-sprint cycling. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(7), pp. 882 - 890. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0638
Applied sport science of Australian football: A systematic review
Johnston, Richard, Black, Georgia M., Harrison, Peter W., Murray, Nick B. and Austin, Damien J.. (2018). Applied sport science of Australian football: A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 48(7), pp. 1673 - 1694. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0919-z
Relationships between model estimates and actual match-performance indices in professional Australian footballers during an in-season macrocycle
Graham, Stuart R., Cormack, Stuart, Parfitt, Gaynor and Eston, Roger. (2018). Relationships between model estimates and actual match-performance indices in professional Australian footballers during an in-season macrocycle. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(3), pp. 339-346. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0026
Cold-water immersion for athletic recovery: One size does not fit all
Jessica M. Stephens, Shona Halson, Joanna Miller, Gary Slater and Christopher D. Askew. (2017). Cold-water immersion for athletic recovery: One size does not fit all. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(1), pp. 2-9. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0095
A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games
Drew, Michael K., Vlahovich, Nicole, Hughes, David, Appaneal, Renee, Peterson, Kirsten, Burke, Louise, Lundy, Bronwen, Toomey, Mary, Watts, David, Lovell, Gregory, Praet, Stephan, Halson, Shona, Colbey, Candice, Manzanero, Silvia, Welvaert, Marijke, West, Nic P., Pyne, David B. and Waddington, Gordon. (2017). A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(8), pp. 745 - 750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.02.010
Greater effect of east versus west travel on jet lag, sleep, and team sport performance
Fowler, Peter M., Knez, Wade, Crowcroft, Stephen, Mendham, Amy E., Miller, Joanna, Sargent, Charli, Halson, Shona and Duffield, Rob. (2017). Greater effect of east versus west travel on jet lag, sleep, and team sport performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49(12), pp. 2548 - 2561. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001374
Identification of sensitive measures of recovery after external load from football match play
Rowell, Amber E., Aughey, Robert, Hopkins, W. G., Stewart, Andrew M. and Cormack, Stuart. (2017). Identification of sensitive measures of recovery after external load from football match play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(7), pp. 969 - 976. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0522
When is a sprint a sprint? A review of the analysis of team-sport athlete activity profile
Sweeting, Alice J., Cormack, Stuart J., Morgan, Stuart and Aughey, Robert J.. (2017). When is a sprint a sprint? A review of the analysis of team-sport athlete activity profile. Frontiers in Physiology. 8(8), pp. 1 - 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00432
Team sport athletes' perceptions and use of recovery strategies: A mixed-methods survey study
Crowther, Fiona, Sealey, Rebecca, Crowe, Melissa, Edwards, Andrew and Halson, Shona. (2017). Team sport athletes' perceptions and use of recovery strategies: A mixed-methods survey study. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 9(1), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-017-0071-3
Cold-water immersion and contrast water therapy: No improvement of short-term recovery after resistance training
Argus, Christos K., Broatch, James R., Petersen, Aaron C., Polman, Remco, Bishop, David J. and Halson, Shona. (2017). Cold-water immersion and contrast water therapy: No improvement of short-term recovery after resistance training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(7), pp. 886 - 892. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0127
Changes in rugby league tackling ability during a competitive season : The relationship with strength and power qualities
Speranza, Michael J. A., Gabbett, Tim J., Greene, David A., Johnston, Rich D. and Sheppard, Jeremy M.. (2017). Changes in rugby league tackling ability during a competitive season : The relationship with strength and power qualities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(12), pp. 3311-3318. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001540
Self-reported wellness profiles of professional Australian Football players during the competition phase of the season
Gallo, Tania F., Cormack, Stuart J., Gabbett, Tim J. and Lorenzen, Christian H.. (2017). Self-reported wellness profiles of professional Australian Football players during the competition phase of the season. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(2), pp. 495 - 502. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001515
Injury epidemiology of tennis players at the 2011-2016 Australian open grand slam
Gescheit, Danielle, Cormack, Stuart, Duffield, Rob, Kovalchik, Stephanie, Wood, Tim O., Omizzolo, Melanie and Reid, Machar. (2017). Injury epidemiology of tennis players at the 2011-2016 Australian open grand slam. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51(17), pp. 1 - 6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097283
Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games
Drew, Michael, Vlahovich, Nicole, Hughes, David, Appaneal, Renee, Burke, Louise, Lundy, Bronwen, Rogers, Margot, Toomey, Mary, Watts, David, Lovell, Gregory, Praet, Stephan F. E., Halson, Shona, Colbey, Candice, Manzanero, Silvia, Welvaert, Marijke, West, NIcholas P., Pyne, David and Waddington, Gordon. (2017). Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 52(1), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098208
Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play
Hulin, Billy T., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Rich D. and Jenkins, David G.. (2017). Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(7), pp. 638-642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.006
Comparison of ergometer- and track-based testing in junior track-sprint cyclists. Implications for talent identification and development
Tofari, Paul, Cormack, Stuart, Ebert, Tammie R., Gardner, A. S. and Kemp, Justin. (2017). Comparison of ergometer- and track-based testing in junior track-sprint cyclists. Implications for talent identification and development. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1243795
Non-motorized treadmill running is associated with higher cardiometabolic demands compared with overground and motorized treadmill running
Edwards, Robert B., Tofari, Paul J., Cormack, Stuart J. and Whyte, Douglas G.. (2017). Non-motorized treadmill running is associated with higher cardiometabolic demands compared with overground and motorized treadmill running. Frontiers in Physiology. 8(914), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00914
Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men
Filopoulos, Dean, Cormack, Stuart J. and Whyte, Douglas G.. (2017). Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men. European Journal of Sport Science. 17(7), pp. 821 - 829. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1317834
Protein ingestion before sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial
Kouw, Imre W.K., Holwerda, Andrew M., Trommelen, Jorn, Kramer, Irene Fleur, Bastiaanse, Jacqueline, Halson, Shona, Wodzig, Will K.W.H., Verdijk, Lex B. and Van Loon, Luc. (2017). Protein ingestion before sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Nutrition. 147(12), pp. 2252 - 2261. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.117.254532
Influence of physical maturity status on sprinting speed among youth soccer players
McCunn, Robert, Weston, Matthew, Hill, John KA, Johnston, Richard and Gibson, Neil V.. (2017). Influence of physical maturity status on sprinting speed among youth soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(7), pp. 1795 - 1801. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001654
Software thresholds alter the bias of actigraphy for monitoring sleep in team-sport athletes
Fuller, Kate L., Juliff, Laura E., Gore, Christopher J., Peiffer, Jeremiah John and Halson, Shona. (2017). Software thresholds alter the bias of actigraphy for monitoring sleep in team-sport athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(8), pp. 756 - 760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.021
Influence of recovery strategies upon performance and perceptions following fatiguing exercise: A randomized controlled trial
Crowther, Fiona, Sealey, Rebecca, Crowe, Melissa, Edwards, Andrew and Halson, Shona. (2017). Influence of recovery strategies upon performance and perceptions following fatiguing exercise: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 9(1), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-017-0087-8
Effect of different repeated-high-intensity-effort bouts on subsequent running, skill performance, and neuromuscular function
Johnston, Rich D., Gabbett, Tim J., Jenkins, David G. and Speranza, Michael J.. (2016). Effect of different repeated-high-intensity-effort bouts on subsequent running, skill performance, and neuromuscular function. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 11(3), pp. 311-318. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0243
The chronotype of elite athletes
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, G. D., Halson, Shona and Sargent, C.. (2016). The chronotype of elite athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics. 54(1), pp. 219 - 225. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2016-0049
Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists
Martin, Kristy, Staiano, Walter, Menaspà, Paolo, Hennessey, Tom, Marcora, Samuele, Keegan, Richard J., Thompson, Kevin G., Martin, David, Halson, Shona and Rattray, Ben. (2016). Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists. PLoS ONE. 11(7), pp. 1 - 15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159907
Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation
Tofari, Paul J., Opar, David, Kemp, Justin Guy, Billaut, Francois and Cormack, Stuart John. (2016). Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation. Muscle & Nerve. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.24926
Effects of consecutive days of match play on technical performance in tennis
Gescheit, Danielle, Duffield, Rob, Skein, Melissa, Brydon, Neil, Cormack, Stuart John and Reid, Machar. (2016). Effects of consecutive days of match play on technical performance in tennis. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1244352
Importance of standardized DXA protocol for assessing physique changes in athletes
Nana, Alisa, Slater, Gary J., Hopkins, Will, Halson, Shona, Martin, D. T., West, N. P. and Burke, Louise Mary. (2016). Importance of standardized DXA protocol for assessing physique changes in athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 26(3), pp. 259 - 267. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0111
Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout?
Johnston, Rich D., Gabbett, Tim J., Walker, Shane, Walker, Ben and Jenkins, David G.. (2015). Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout? Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(3), pp. 816-821. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000679
Nutrition and recovery
Halson, Shona and Burke, Louise Mary. (2015). Nutrition and recovery. In Tennis science : How player and racket work together pp. 116-135 University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226139623.001.0001
The impact of a simulated grand tour on sleep, mood, and well-being of competitive cyclists
Michelle Lastella, Gregory D Roach, Shona Halson, David Martin, Nicholas P West and Charli Sargent. (2015). The impact of a simulated grand tour on sleep, mood, and well-being of competitive cyclists. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 55(12), pp. 1555-1564.
Consecutive days of prolonged tennis match play : Performance, physical, and perceptual responses in trained players
Gescheit, Danielle, Cormack, Stuart, Reid, Machar and Duffield, Rob. (2015). Consecutive days of prolonged tennis match play : Performance, physical, and perceptual responses in trained players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10, pp. 913 - 920. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0329
Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions
Juliff, Laura E., Halson, Shona and Peiffer, Jeremiah John. (2015). Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 18(1), pp. 13 - 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.02.007
Activity Profile of High-Level Australian Lacrosse Players
Polley, Christopher S., Cormack, Stuart J., Gabbett, Tim J. and Polglaze, Ted. (2015). Activity Profile of High-Level Australian Lacrosse Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(1), pp. 126 - 136. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000599
Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, Gregory D., Halson, Shona, Martin, David T., West, Nicholas P. and Sargent, Charli. (2015). Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(3), pp. 293 - 299. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.942690
Confounding compression: The effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing
Brophy-Williams, Ned, Driller, Matthew W., Shing, C., Fell, James W. and Halson, Shona. (2015). Confounding compression: The effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(13), pp. 1403 - 1410. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.990489
The influence of physical fitness and playing standard on pacing strategies during a team-sport tournament
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim and Jenkins, David. (2015). The influence of physical fitness and playing standard on pacing strategies during a team-sport tournament. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10(8), pp. 1001 - 1008. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0005
Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players
Nédélec, Mathieu, Halson, Shona, Delecroix, Barthélémy, Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset, Ahmaidi, S. and Dupont, Gregory. (2015). Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players. Sports Medicine. 45(11), pp. 1547 - 1559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0377-9
Fatigue and pacing in rugby league players
Johnston, Richard. (2015). Fatigue and pacing in rugby league players [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a9cbe35b0b9e
Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: A critical review of the literature
Nédélec, Mathieu, Halson, Shona, Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset, Ahmaidi, S. and Dupont, Gregory. (2015). Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: A critical review of the literature. Sports Medicine. 45(10), pp. 1387 - 1400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0358-z
Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, Gregory D., Halson, Shona and Sargent, Charli. (2015). Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports. European Journal of Sport Science. 15(2), pp. 94 - 100. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.932016
Influence of playing standard and physical fitness on activity profiles and post-match fatigue during intensified junior rugby league competition
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim and Jenkins, David. (2015). Influence of playing standard and physical fitness on activity profiles and post-match fatigue during intensified junior rugby league competition. Sports Medicine - Open. 1(18), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0015-y
Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers
Gallo, Tania, Cormack, Stuart, Gabbett, Tim, Williams, Morgan and Lorenzen, Christian. (2015). Characteristics impacting on session rating of perceived exertion training load in Australian footballers. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(5), pp. 467 - 475. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.947311
Relationship between a standardized tackling proficiency test and match-play tackle performance in semiprofessional Rugby League players
Speranza, Michael, Gabbett, Tim, Johnston, Rich and Sheppard, Jeremy. (2015). Relationship between a standardized tackling proficiency test and match-play tackle performance in semiprofessional Rugby League players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10(6), pp. 754 - 760. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0044
Muscular strength and power correlates of tackling ability in semiprofessional Rugby League players
Speranza, Michael, Gabbett, Tim, Johnston, Richard and Sheppard, Jeremy. (2015). Muscular strength and power correlates of tackling ability in semiprofessional Rugby League players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(8), pp. 2071 - 2078. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000897
Influence of contrast shower and water immersion on recovery in elite netballers
Juliff, Laura E., Halson, Shona, Bonetti, Darrell L., Versey, Nathan, Driller, Matthew W. and Peiffer, Jeremiah John. (2014). Influence of contrast shower and water immersion on recovery in elite netballers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 28(8), pp. 2353 - 2358. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000417
Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes
Halson, Shona. (2014). Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Medicine. 44(Suppl 2), pp. 139 - 147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0253-z
Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists?
Halson, Shona, Bartram, Jason C., West, Nicholas P., Stephens, Jessica M., Argus, Christos K., Driller, Matthew W., Sargent, Charli, Lastella, Michelle, Hopkins, Will G. and Martin, David T.. (2014). Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 46(8), pp. 1631 - 1639. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000268
Applied sport science of Rugby League
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim J. and Jenkins, David. (2014). Applied sport science of Rugby League. Sports Medicine: reviews of applied medicine and science in sport and exercise. 44(8), pp. 1087 - 1100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0190-x
Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers
Sargent, Charli, Halson, Shona and Roach, Gregory D.. (2014). Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers. European Journal of Sport Science. 14(Supplement 1), pp. 310 - 315. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2012.696711
Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep
Halson, Shona. (2014). Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Medicine. 44(Supplement 1), pp. 13 - 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0147-0
Influence of Physical Contact on Pacing Strategies During Game-Based Activities
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim, Seibold, Anthony and Jenkins, David. (2014). Influence of Physical Contact on Pacing Strategies During Game-Based Activities. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(5), pp. 811 - 816. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2013-0424
Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: A pilot study
Robey, Elisa, Dawson, Brian, Halson, Shona, Gregson, Warren, Goodman, Carmel and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2014). Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: A pilot study. European Journal of Sport Science. 14(5), pp. 410 - 417. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.843024
Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression clothing
Brophy-Williams, Ned, Driller, Matthew, Halson, Shona, Fell, James W. and Shing, C.. (2014). Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression clothing. Sports Engineering. 17(1), pp. 55 - 60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-013-0125-z
Accelerometer Load as a Measure of Activity Profile in Different Standards of Netball Match Play
Cormack, Stuart, Smith, Renee, Mooney, Mitchell, Young, Warren and O'Brien, Brendan. (2014). Accelerometer Load as a Measure of Activity Profile in Different Standards of Netball Match Play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(2), pp. 283 - 291. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2012-0216
Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists
Hoon, Matthew, Hopkins, William, Jones, Andrew, Martin, David, Halson, Shona, West, Nicholas, Johnson, Nathan and Burke, Louise. (2014). Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 39(9), pp. 1043 - 1049. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0574
Reliability of a 2-bout exercise test on a wattbike cycle ergometer
Driller, Matthew W., Argus, Christos K., Bartram, Jason C., Bonaventura, Jacinta, Martin, David T., West, Nicholas P. and Halson, Shona. (2014). Reliability of a 2-bout exercise test on a wattbike cycle ergometer. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(2), pp. 340 - 345. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2013-0103
Strength and power profiling of athletes : Selecting tests and how to use the information for program design
McGuigan, Michael, Cormack, Stuart and Gill, Nicholas. (2013). Strength and power profiling of athletes : Selecting tests and how to use the information for program design. Strength and Conditioning Journal. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000011
Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on match exercise intensity and performance in elite Australian football
Mooney, Mitchell, Cormack, Stuart, O'Brien, Brendan, Morgan, William and McGuigan, Michael. (2013). Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on match exercise intensity and performance in elite Australian football. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182514683
Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition
Johnston, Rich D., Gibson, Neil V., Twist, Craig, Gabbett, Tim. J., MacNay, Sophie A. and MacFarlane, Niall G.. (2013). Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 27(3), pp. 643-654. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825bb469
Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players
Gibson, Neil V., Currie, J., Johnston, Richard and Hill, J.. (2013). Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 53(1), pp. 9 - 16.
Influence of neuromuscular fatigue on accelerometer load in elite Australian football players
Cormack, Stuart, Mooney, Mitchell, Morgan, Will and McGuigan, Michael. (2013). Influence of neuromuscular fatigue on accelerometer load in elite Australian football players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.8.4.373
Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players
Johnston, Richard, Gabbett, Timothy and Jenkins, David. (2013). Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.10.009
Do physical capacity and interchange rest periods influence match exercise-intensity profile in Australian football?
Mooney, Mitchell, Cormack, Stuart, O'Brien, Brendan and Coutts, Aaron. (2013). Do physical capacity and interchange rest periods influence match exercise-intensity profile in Australian football? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.8.2.165
International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level conterparts
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron and Aughey, Robert. (2012). International field hockey players perform more high-speed running than national-level conterparts. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 26(4), pp. 947 - 952. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822e5913
GPS Analysis of an International Field Hockey Tournament
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron and Aughey, Robert. (2012). GPS Analysis of an International Field Hockey Tournament. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 7(3), pp. 224 - 231. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.7.3.224
Is "train as you play" the way to go?
Gabbett, Tim and Cormack, Stuart. (2012). Is "train as you play" the way to go? 5th Exercise and Sports Science Australia Conference. pp. 41 - 42
The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football :A mediation approach
Mooney, Mitchell, O'Brien, Brendan, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Berry, Jason and Young, Warren. (2011). The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football :A mediation approach. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 14(5), pp. 447 - 452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.03.010
Which jump variables should be used to assess explosive leg muscle function?
Young, Warren, Cormack, Stuart and Crichton, Michael. (2011). Which jump variables should be used to assess explosive leg muscle function? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 6(1), pp. 51 - 57. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.6.1.51
A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance
Tofari, Paul J., McLean, Blake D., Kemp, Justin and Cormack, Stuart. (2011). A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 14(1), pp. 62 - 68.
Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling
Cox, Geoffrey, Clark, Sally, Cox, A, Halson, Shona, Hargreaves, M, Hawley, John, Jeacocke, N, Snow, Rod, Yeo, W and Burke, Louise. (2010). Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology. 109(1), pp. 126 - 134. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00950.2009
The Validity and Reliability of GPS Units for Measuring Distance in Team Sport Specific Running Patterns
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Boyd, Luke and Aughey, Robert. (2010). The Validity and Reliability of GPS Units for Measuring Distance in Team Sport Specific Running Patterns. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(3), pp. 328 - 341. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.3.328
Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury
Ross, M, Halson, Shona, Suzuki, K, Garnham, A, Hawley, John, Cameron-Smith, David and Peake, J. (2010). Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. 30(5), pp. 329 - 337. https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.2009.0079
Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements
Jennings, Denise, Cormack, Stuart, Coutts, Aaron, Boyd, Luke and Aughey, Robert. (2010). Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(4), pp. 565 - 569. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.4.565
Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players
McLean, Blake, Coutts, Aaron, Kelly, Vincent, McGuigan, Michael and Cormack, Stuart. (2010). Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 5(3), pp. 367 - 383. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.3.367
Movement pattern comparisons in elite (AFL) and sub-elite (WAFL) Australian football games using GPS
Brewer, Cameron, Dawson, Brian, Heasman, Jarryd, Stewart, Glenn and Cormack, Stuart. (2010). Movement pattern comparisons in elite (AFL) and sub-elite (WAFL) Australian football games using GPS. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 13(6), pp. 618 - 623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2010.01.005
Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players
McGuigan, Michael, Cormack, Stuart and Newton, Robert U.. (2009). Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(1), pp. 26 - 32. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818753ca
Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players to an Australian rules football match
Cormack, Stuart, Newton, Robert U. and McGuigan, Michael. (2008). Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players to an Australian rules football match. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(3), pp. 359 - 374. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.3.359
Reliability of measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jumps
Cormack, Stuart, Newton, Robert U., McGuigan, Michael and Doyle, Tim. (2008). Reliability of measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jumps. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(2), pp. 131 - 144. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.2.131
Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season
Cormack, Stuart John, Newton, Robert U., McGuigan, Michael R. and Cormie, Prue. (2008). Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(4), pp. 439 - 453. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.4.439
Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: The incremental load power profile
Sheppard, Jeremy, Cormack, Stuart, Taylor, Kristie-Lee, McGuigan, Michael and Newton, Robert U.. (2008). Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: The incremental load power profile. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(4), pp. 1320 - 1326. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d671b
The use of sprint tests for assessment of speed qualities of elite Australian rules footballers
Young, Warren, Russell, Andrew, Burge, Peter, Clarke, Alex, Cormack, Stuart and Stewart, Glenn. (2008). The use of sprint tests for assessment of speed qualities of elite Australian rules footballers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(2), pp. 199 - 206. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.2.199