A menthol-enhanced “cooling” energy gel does not influence laboratory time trial performance in trained runners

Journal article


Vogel, Roxanne M., Varone, Nicole, Clark, Cayla, Ramirez, Kyndall, Ross, Megan L. R., Swann, Christian and Stevens, Christopher J.. (2023). A menthol-enhanced “cooling” energy gel does not influence laboratory time trial performance in trained runners. Nutrients. 15(15), p. Article 3379. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153379
AuthorsVogel, Roxanne M., Varone, Nicole, Clark, Cayla, Ramirez, Kyndall, Ross, Megan L. R., Swann, Christian and Stevens, Christopher J.
Abstract

l-menthol (menthol) is an organic compound derived from peppermint which imparts a refreshing mint flavor and aroma to oral hygiene products, chewing gum, and topical analgesics. Menthol has been identified as a non-thermal sensory cooling strategy for athletes when ingested or mouth-rinsed during exercise in hot environments. Therefore, sports nutrition products delivering a controlled concentration of menthol could be beneficial for athletes exercising in the heat. We sought to test the performance and perceptual outcomes of a novel menthol energy gel during treadmill running in the heat (33 °C, 49% RH). Fourteen trained runners (mean ± SD; age: 31 ± 6 years, VO2max: 56.5 ± 10.1 mL·kg−1·min−1, BMI: 23.2 ± 2.4 kg/m2; six female) participated in a randomized, crossover, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. A menthol-enhanced energy gel (0.5% concentration; MEN) or flavor-matched placebo (PLA) was ingested 5 min before and again at 20 and 40 min of a 40 min treadmill exercise preload at 60% VO2max, followed by a 20 min self-paced time trial. The total distance, vertical distance, perceptual measures (thermal comfort, thermal sensation, rating of perceived exertion, and affect), and cognitive performance via computerized neurocognitive assessment were measured. No difference between 20 min self-paced time trial total distance (MEN: 4.22 ± 0.54 km, PLA: 4.22 ± 0.55 km, p = 0.867), vertical distance (MEN: 49.2 ± 24.6 m, PLA: 44.4 ± 11.4 m, p = 0.516), or any perceptual measures was observed (all p > 0.05). Cognitive performance was not different between the trials (all p > 0.05). These results suggest that a menthol energy gel is not superior to a non-menthol gel in terms of performance or perception during treadmill running in the heat. More research is needed to confirm whether these findings translate to ecologically valid settings, including outdoor exercise in ambient heat and during competition.

Keywordsthermoregulation; supplement; endurance; cooling; cognitive; mint; perception; sports nutrition
Year2023
JournalNutrients
Journal citation15 (15), p. Article 3379
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI AG)
ISSN2072-6643
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153379
PubMed ID37571316
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85167650483
PubMed Central IDPMC10420894
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Page range1-13
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online29 Jul 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted25 Jul 2023
Deposited20 Sep 2023
Permalink -

https://acuresearchbank.acu.edu.au/item/8zq32/a-menthol-enhanced-cooling-energy-gel-does-not-influence-laboratory-time-trial-performance-in-trained-runners

Download files


Publisher's version
OA_Vogel_2023_A_menthol_enhanced_cooling_energy_gel.pdf
License: CC BY 4.0
File access level: Open

  • 19
    total views
  • 11
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month
These values are for the period from 19th October 2020, when this repository was created.

Export as

Related outputs

The Impact of a Short-Term Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet on Biomarkers of Intestinal Epithelial Integrity and Gastrointestinal Symptoms
McKay, Alannah Kelli Anique, Wallett, Alice M., McKune, Andrew, Periard, Julien, Saunders, Philo, Whitfield, Jamie, Tee, Nicolin, Heikura, Ida, Ross, Megan Louise Rhys, Sharma, Avish P., Costa, Ricardo J.S. and Burke, Louise Mary. (2023). The Impact of a Short-Term Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet on Biomarkers of Intestinal Epithelial Integrity and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 33(6), pp. 305-315. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2023-0009
Short severe energy restriction with refueling reduces body mass without altering training-associated performance improvement
Burke, Louise M., Whitfield, Jamie, Ross, Megan L., Tee, Nicolin, Sharma, Avish P., King, Andy K., Heikura, Ida A., Morabito, Aimee and McKay, Alannah K. A.. (2023). Short severe energy restriction with refueling reduces body mass without altering training-associated performance improvement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 55(8), pp. 1487-1498. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000003169
The impact of acute calcium intake on bone turnover markers during a training day in elite male rowers
Lundy, Bronwen, McKay, Alannah K. A., Fensham, Nikita, Tee, Nicolin, Anderson, Bryce, Morabito, Aimee, Ross, Megan L. R., Sim, Marc, Ackerman, Kathryn E. and Burke, Louise M.. (2023). The impact of acute calcium intake on bone turnover markers during a training day in elite male rowers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 55(1), pp. 55-65. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000003022
Sequential submaximal training in elite male rowers does not result in amplified increases in interleukin-6 or hepcidin
Fensham, Nikita C., McKay, Alannah K. A., Tee, Nicolin, Lundy, Bronwen, Anderson, Bryce, Morabito, Aimee, Ross, Megan L. R. and Burke, Louise M.. (2022). Sequential submaximal training in elite male rowers does not result in amplified increases in interleukin-6 or hepcidin. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 32(3), pp. 177-185. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2021-0263
The hyperhydration potential of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate
Siegler, Jason C., Carr, Amelia J., Jardine, William T., Convit, Lilia, Cross, Rebecca, Chapman, Dale, Burke, Louise M. and Ross, Megan. (2022). The hyperhydration potential of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 32(2), pp. 74-81. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2021-0179
Short-term very high carbohydrate diet and gut-training have minor effects on gastrointestinal status and performance in highly trained endurance athletes
King, Andrew J., Etxebarria, Naroa, Ross, Megan L., Garvican-Lewis, Laura, Heikura, Ida A., McKay, Alannah K. A., Tee, Nicolin, Forbes, Sara F., Beard, Nicole A., Saunders, Philo U., Sharma, Avish P., Gaskell, Stephanie K., Costa, Ricardo J. S. and Burke, Louise M.. (2022). Short-term very high carbohydrate diet and gut-training have minor effects on gastrointestinal status and performance in highly trained endurance athletes. Nutrients. 14(9), p. Article 1929. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091929
Athlete perceptions of flavored, menthol-enhanced energy gels ingested prior to endurance exercise in the heat
Vogel, Roxanne M., Ross, Megan L. R., Swann, Christian, Rothwell, Jessica E. and Stevens, Christopher J.. (2022). Athlete perceptions of flavored, menthol-enhanced energy gels ingested prior to endurance exercise in the heat. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 19(1), pp. 580-592. https://doi.org/10.1080/15502783.2022.2117995
Energetics in elite race walkers
Etxebarria, Naroa, Spratford, Wayne, Iriberri, Jon, Ross, Meg, Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu and Pyne, David. (2022). Energetics in elite race walkers. European Journal of Sport Science. 22(8), pp. 1149-1155. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1948615
Neither beetroot juice supplementation nor increased carbohydrate oxidation enhance economy of prolonged exercise in elite race walkers
Burke, Louise M., Hall, Rebecca, Heikura, Ida A., Ross, Megan L., Tee, Nicolin, Kent, Georgina L., Whitfield, Jamie, Forbes, Sara F., Sharma, Avish P., Jones, Andrew M., Peeling, Peter, Blackwell, Jamie R., Mujika, Iñigo, Mackay, Karen, Kozior, Marta, Vallance, Brent and McKay, Alannah K. A.. (2021). Neither beetroot juice supplementation nor increased carbohydrate oxidation enhance economy of prolonged exercise in elite race walkers. Nutrients. 13(8), p. Article 2767. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082767
The validity of ultrasound technology in providing an indirect estimate of muscle glycogen concentrations is equivocal
Bone, Julia L., Ross, Megan L., Tomcik, Kristyen A., Jeacocke, Nikki A., McKay, Alannah K. A. and Burke, Louise M.. (2021). The validity of ultrasound technology in providing an indirect estimate of muscle glycogen concentrations is equivocal. Nutrients. 13(7), p. Article 2371. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072371
Development of a "cooling" menthol energy gel for endurance athletes : Effect of menthol concentration on acceptability and preferences
Stevens, Christopher J., Ross, Megan L. R. and Vogel, Roxanne M.. (2021). Development of a "cooling" menthol energy gel for endurance athletes : Effect of menthol concentration on acceptability and preferences. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 31(1), pp. 40-45. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSNEM.2020-0190
Postexercise hot-water immersion does not further enhance heat adaptation or performance in endurance athletes training in a hot environment
Stevens, Christopher J., Ross, Megan L. R., Carr, Amelia J., Vallance, Brent, Best, Russ, Urwin, Charles, Periard, Julien D. and Burke, Louise. (2021). Postexercise hot-water immersion does not further enhance heat adaptation or performance in endurance athletes training in a hot environment. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 16(4), pp. 480-488. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0114
Quinine ingestion during the latter stages of a 3,000-m time trial fails to improve cycling performance
Etxebarria, Naroa, Clark, Brad, Ross, Megan L., Hui, Timothy,, Goecke, Roland, Rattray, Ben and Burke, Louise, M.. (2021). Quinine ingestion during the latter stages of a 3,000-m time trial fails to improve cycling performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 31(1), pp. 9-12. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSNEM.2020-0265
Sustained Exposure to High Carbohydrate Availability Does Not Influence Iron-Regulatory Responses in Elite Endurance Athletes
McKay, A., Peeling, P., Pyne, D.B., Tee, N., Welveart, M., Heikura, I., Sharma, A.P., Whitfield, J., Ross, M., van Swelm, R.P.L., Laarakkers, C.M. and Burke, L.. (2021). Sustained Exposure to High Carbohydrate Availability Does Not Influence Iron-Regulatory Responses in Elite Endurance Athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 31(2), pp. 101-108. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0224
Chronic pantothenic acid supplementation does not affect muscle coenzyme A content or cycling performance
Whitfield, Jamie, Harris, Roger C., Broad, Elizabeth M., Patterson, Alison K., Ross, Megan L. R., Shaw, Gregory, Spriet, Lawrence L. and Burke, Louise M.. (2021). Chronic pantothenic acid supplementation does not affect muscle coenzyme A content or cycling performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 46(3), pp. 280-283. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0692
Adaptation to Low Carbohydrate High Fat diet is rapid but impairs endurance exercise metabolism and performance despite enhanced glycogen availability
Burke, Louise M., Whitfield, Jamie, Heikura, Ida A., Ross, Megan L. R., Tee, Nicolin, Forbes, Sara F., Hall, Rebecca, McKay, Alannah K. A., Wallett, Alice M. and Sharma, Avish P.. (2021). Adaptation to Low Carbohydrate High Fat diet is rapid but impairs endurance exercise metabolism and performance despite enhanced glycogen availability. Journal of Physiology. 599(3), pp. 771-790. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP280221
Menthol as an ergogenic aid for the Tokyo 2021 Olympic games : An expert-led consensus statement using the modified Delphi method
Barwood, M. J., Gibson, O. R., Gillis, D. J., Jeffries, O., Morris, N. B., Pearce, J., Ross, M. L., Stevens, C., Rinaldi, K., Kounalakis, S. N., Riera, F., Mündel, T., Waldron, M. and Best, R.. (2020). Menthol as an ergogenic aid for the Tokyo 2021 Olympic games : An expert-led consensus statement using the modified Delphi method. Sports Medicine. 50(10), pp. 1709-1727. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01313-9
Sports Dietitians Australia Position Statement: Nutrition for Exercise in Hot Environments
Alan J McCubbin, Bethanie A Allanson, Joanne N Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M Cort, Ricardo J S Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G Freney, Stephanie K Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita Lalor, Meg Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien Periard and Louise Burke. (2020). Sports Dietitians Australia Position Statement: Nutrition for Exercise in Hot Environments. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 30(1), pp. 83-98. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0300
Crisis of confidence averted : Impairment of exercise economy and performance in elite race walkers by ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet is reproducible
Burke, Louise M., Sharma, Avish P., Heikura, Ida A., Forbes, Sara F., Holloway, Melissa, McKay, Alannah K. A., Bone, Julia L., Leckey, Jill J., Welvaert, Marijke and Ross, Megan L.. (2020). Crisis of confidence averted : Impairment of exercise economy and performance in elite race walkers by ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet is reproducible. PLoS ONE. 15(6), pp. 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0234027
Core temperature responses to elite racewalking competition 
Stevens, Christopher John, Ross, Megan L., Périard, Julien D., Vallance, Brent S. and Burke, Louise M.. (2020). Core temperature responses to elite racewalking competition . International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15(6), pp. 892-895. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0397
Ingesting a bitter solution: The sweet touch to increasing short-term cycling performance
Etxebarria, Naroa, Ross, Megan L., Clark, Brad and Burke, Louise M.. (2019). Ingesting a bitter solution: The sweet touch to increasing short-term cycling performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(6), pp. 727 - 732. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0554
The effects of dietary pattern during intensified training on stool microbiota of elite race walkers
Murtaza, Nida, Burke, Louise M., Vlahovich, Nicole, Charlesson, Bronwen, O'Neill, Hayley M., Ross, Megan L., Campbell, Katrina L., Krause, Lutz and Morrison, Mark. (2019). The effects of dietary pattern during intensified training on stool microbiota of elite race walkers. Nutrients. 11(2), pp. 1 - 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020261
Analysis of the effects of dietary pattern on the oral microbiome of elite endurance athletes
Murtaza, Nida, Burke, Louise M., Vlahovich, Nicole, Charlesson, Bronwen, O'Neill, Hayley M., Ross, Megan L., Campbell, Katrina L., Krause, Lutz and Morrison, Mark. (2019). Analysis of the effects of dietary pattern on the oral microbiome of elite endurance athletes. Nutrients. 11(3), pp. 1 - 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030614
Effects of creatine and carbohydrate loading on cycling time trial performance
Tomcik, Kristyen A., Camera, Donny, Bone, Julia L. L., Ross, Meg, Jeacocke, N. A., Tachtsis, Bill, Senden, Joan M., Van Loon, Luc, Hawley, John and Burke, Louise. (2018). Effects of creatine and carbohydrate loading on cycling time trial performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 50(1), pp. 141 - 150. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001401
Ketone diester ingestion impairs time-trial performance in professional cyclists
Leckey, Jill J., Ross, Megan L., Quod, Marc, Hawley, John A. and Burke, Louise M.. (2017). Ketone diester ingestion impairs time-trial performance in professional cyclists. Frontiers in Physiology. 8(OCT), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00806
Factors influencing the post-exercise hepcidin-25 response in elite athletes
Peeling, P., McKay, Alannah K.A., Pyne, David, Guelfi, Kym J., McCormick, Rachel H., Laarakkers, Coby M., Swinkels, Dorine W., Garvican, L. A., Ross, Meg, Sharma, Avish P., Leckey, Jill and Burke, Louise. (2017). Factors influencing the post-exercise hepcidin-25 response in elite athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 117(6), pp. 1233 - 1239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3611-3
Manipulation of muscle creatine and glycogen changes DXA estimates of body composition
Bone, Julia L., Ross, Megan L., Tomcik, Kristyen A., Jeacocke, Nikki A., Hopkins, Will G. and Burke, Louise M.. (2017). Manipulation of muscle creatine and glycogen changes DXA estimates of body composition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49(5), pp. 1029-1035. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001174
Vitamin C-enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis
Shaw, Greg, Lee-Barthel, Ann, Ross, Meg, Wang, Bing H. and Baar, Keith. (2017). Vitamin C-enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 105(1), pp. 136 - 143. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.138594
Fluid Balance, Carbohydrate Ingestion, and Body Temperature During Men's Stage-Race Cycling in Temperate Environmental Conditions
Ross, Megan, Stephens, Brian, Abbiss, Chris, Martin, David, Laursen, Paul and Burke, Louise. (2014). Fluid Balance, Carbohydrate Ingestion, and Body Temperature During Men's Stage-Race Cycling in Temperate Environmental Conditions. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(3), pp. 575 - 582. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2012-0369
Variability of Measurements of Sweat Sodium Using the Regional Absorbent-Patch Method
Dziedzic, Christine, Ross, Megan, Slater, Gary and Burke, Louise. (2014). Variability of Measurements of Sweat Sodium Using the Regional Absorbent-Patch Method. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(5), pp. 832 - 838. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2013-0480
Single and combined effects of betroot juice and caffeine supplementation on cycling time trial performance
Lane, Stephen, Hawley, John, Desbrow, Ben, Jones, Andrew, Blackwell, James, Ross, Megan, Zemski, Adam and Burke, Louise. (2014). Single and combined effects of betroot juice and caffeine supplementation on cycling time trial performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 39(9), pp. 1050 - 1057. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0336
Dairy-Based Preexercise Meal Does Not Affect Gut Comfort or Time-Trial Performance in Female Cyclists
Haakonssen, Eric, Ross, Megan, Cato, Louise, Nana, Alisa, Knight, Emma, Jenkins, David, Martin, David and Burke, Louise. (2014). Dairy-Based Preexercise Meal Does Not Affect Gut Comfort or Time-Trial Performance in Female Cyclists. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 24(5), pp. 553 - 558. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0069
The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike world championships
Abbiss, Chris R., Ross, Megan L. R., Garvican, Laura A., Ross, Neil, Pottgiesser, Torben, Gregory, John and Martin, David T.. (2013). The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike world championships. Journal of Sports Sciences. 31(7), pp. 787-794. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.751118
Precooling methods and their effects on athletic performance : A systematic review and practical applications
Ross, M, Abbiss, Chris, Laursen, P, Martin, D and Burke, Louise. (2013). Precooling methods and their effects on athletic performance : A systematic review and practical applications. Sports Medicine: reviews of applied medicine and science in sport and exercise. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-012-0014-9
Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis
Areta, José, Burke, Louise, Ross, M, Camera, Donny, West, D, Broad, E, Jeacocke, N, Moore, Daniel, Stellingwerff, T and Phillips, S. (2013). Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. The Journal of Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.244897
Preexercise aminoacidemia and muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise
Burke, Louise, Hawley, John, Ross, M, Moore, Daniel, Phillips, S, Slater, G, Stellingwerff, T, Tipton, K, Garnham, A and Coffey, Vernon. (2012). Preexercise aminoacidemia and muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 44(10), pp. 1968 - 1977. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31825d28fa
Effects of lowering body temperature via hyperhydration, with and without glycerol ingestion and practical precooling on cycling time trial performance in hot and humid conditions
Ross, M, Jeacocke, N, Laursen, P, Martin, D, Abbiss, Chris and Burke, Louise. (2012). Effects of lowering body temperature via hyperhydration, with and without glycerol ingestion and practical precooling on cycling time trial performance in hot and humid conditions. International Society of Sports Nutrition. 9(55), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-9-55
Novel precooling strategy enhances time trial cycling in the heat
Ross, M, Garvican, L, Jeacocke, N, Laursen, P, Abbiss, Chris, Martin, D and Burke, Louise. (2011). Novel precooling strategy enhances time trial cycling in the heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 43(1), pp. 123 - 133. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e93210
Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury
Ross, M, Halson, Shona, Suzuki, K, Garnham, A, Hawley, John, Cameron-Smith, David and Peake, J. (2010). Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. 30(5), pp. 329 - 337. https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.2009.0079