Global practitioner assessment and management of mental fatigue and mental recovery in high-performance sport : A need for evidence-based best-practice guidelines

Journal article


Russell, S., Johnston, R. D., Stanimirovic, R. and Halson, S. L.. (2023). Global practitioner assessment and management of mental fatigue and mental recovery in high-performance sport : A need for evidence-based best-practice guidelines. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14491
AuthorsRussell, S., Johnston, R. D., Stanimirovic, R. and Halson, S. L.
Abstract

Background
Mental fatigue and mental recovery have gained scientific attention in relation to sporting performance, yet best practice assessment and management methods are lacking. A greater understanding of current knowledge and practices in high-performance sport are necessary.

Objective
To understand the contemporary knowledge, beliefs, monitoring processes, management strategies, perceived responsibility, sources of evidence, and challenges, when assessing the mental fatigue and mental recovery of athletes in high-performance sport.

Methods
A mixed-methods survey approach obtained information from 156 multi-disciplinary high-performance sport practitioners. Descriptive outputs were reported and potential differences between key concepts were detected using Wilcoxon-signed rank analysis. Thematic analysis interpreted open-text responses.

Results
Only 11.5% and 5.1% of respondents indicated they were “very” knowledgeable about mental fatigue and mental recovery, respectively. Knowledge (p < 0.001) and confidence in application (p = 0.001) were significantly greater for mental fatigue than mental recovery. Nearly all respondents perceived mental fatigue and mental recovery impacted training and competition performance, with a greater negative impact during competition (p < 0.001). A limited number of respondents reported deliberate assessment (31.1%) or management (51.2%) of mental fatigue and mental recovery. A combination of sources of evidence were used to inform practice, with common challenges to implementation including staff knowledge, athlete-buy in, time-availability, and a lack of evidence. Practitioners reported that assessing and managing mental fatigue and mental recovery was multi-disciplinary in nature.

Conclusion
Practitioners reported that mental fatigue and mental recovery did impact performance, yet this was not reflected in the implementation of evidence-based assessment and management practices in high-performance sport.

Keywordsathlete management; cognition; cognitive load; fatigue; high-performance; human performance
Year2023
JournalScandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Journal citationpp. 1-15
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd
ISSN1600-0838
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14491
PubMed ID37728880
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85171592392
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Page range1-15
FunderAustralian Institute of Sport (AIS)
Queensland Academy of Sport
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusIn press
Publication dates
Online20 Sep 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted21 Aug 2023
Deposited10 Nov 2023
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Validity of real-time ultra-wideband global navigation satellite system data generated by a wearable microtechnology unit
Johnston, Rich D., Hewitt, Adam and Duthie, Grant. (2020). Validity of real-time ultra-wideband global navigation satellite system data generated by a wearable microtechnology unit. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(7), pp. 2071-2075. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003059
A validation study of the WHOOP strap against polysomnography to assess sleep
Miller, Dean J., Lastella, Michele, Scanlan, Aaron T., Bellenger, Clint, Halson, Shona L., Roach, Gregory D. and Sargent, Charli. (2020). A validation study of the WHOOP strap against polysomnography to assess sleep. Journal of Sports Sciences. 38(22), pp. 2631-2636. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1797448
A complex relationship : Sleep, external training load, and well-being in elite Australian footballers
Lalor, Benita J., Halson, Shona L., Tran, Jacqueline, Kemp, Justin G. and Cormack, Stuart J.. (2020). A complex relationship : Sleep, external training load, and well-being in elite Australian footballers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15(6), pp. 777-787. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0061
The impact of training load on sleep during a 14-Day training camp in elite, adolescent, female basketball players
Michele, Lastella, Gregory, D. Roach, Grace, E. Vincent, Aaron, T. Scanlan, Shona, L. Halson and Charli, Sargent. (2020). The impact of training load on sleep during a 14-Day training camp in elite, adolescent, female basketball players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15(5), pp. 724-730. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0157
Perceptions and use of recovery strategies : Do swimmers and coaches believe they are effective?
Shell, Stephanie J., Slattery, Katie, Clark, Brad, Broatch, James R., Halson, Shona, Kellmann, Michael and Coutts, Aaron J.. (2020). Perceptions and use of recovery strategies : Do swimmers and coaches believe they are effective? Journal of Sports Sciences. 38(18), pp. 2092-2099. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1770925
Optimisation and validation of a nutritional intervention to enhance sleep quality and quantity
Halson, Shona L., Shaw, Gregory, Versey, Nathan, Miller, Dean J., Sargent, Charli, Roach, Gregory D., Nyman, Lara, Carter, James M. and Baar, Keith. (2020). Optimisation and validation of a nutritional intervention to enhance sleep quality and quantity. Nutrients. 12(9), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092579
Obstructive sleep apnea in professional rugby league athletes : An exploratory study
Caia, Johnpaul, Halson, Shona L., Scott, Andrew and Kelly, Vincent G.. (2020). Obstructive sleep apnea in professional rugby league athletes : An exploratory study. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 23(11), pp. 1011-1015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.04.014
Compression garments reduce muscle movement and activation during submaximal running
Broatch, James R., Brophy-Williams, N. E. D., Phillips, Elissa J., O’Bryan, Steven J., Halson, Shona L., Barnes, Shannon and Bishop, David J.. (2020). Compression garments reduce muscle movement and activation during submaximal running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 52(3), pp. 685-695. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002182
Resistance training upregulates skeletal muscle Na+, K+-ATPase content, with elevations in both α1 and α2, but not β isoforms
Altarawneh, Muath M., Petersen, Aaron C., Farr, Trevor, Garnham, Andrew, Broatch, James R., Halson, Shona, Bishop, David J. and McKenna, Michael J.. (2020). Resistance training upregulates skeletal muscle Na+, K+-ATPase content, with elevations in both α1 and α2, but not β isoforms. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 120(8), pp. 1777-1785. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04408-3
How to manage travel fatigue and jet lag in athletes? A systematic review of interventions
Janse van Rensburg, Dina C., Jansen van Rensburg, Audrey, Fowler, Peter, Fullagar, Hugh, Stevens, David, Halson, Shona, Bender, Amy, Vincent, Grace, Claassen-Smithers, Amanda, Dunican, Ian, Roach, Gregory Daniel, Sargent, Charli, Lastella, Michele and Cronje, Tanita. (2020). How to manage travel fatigue and jet lag in athletes? A systematic review of interventions. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 54(16), pp. 960-968. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-101635
Changes in subjective mental and physical fatigue during netball games in elite development athletes
Russell, Suzanna, Jenkins, David, Halson, Shona and Kelly, Vincent. (2020). Changes in subjective mental and physical fatigue during netball games in elite development athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 23(6), pp. 615-620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.12.017
The Challenge of Maintaining Metabolic Health During a Global Pandemic
Andy J. King, Louise M. Burke, Shona L. Halson and John A. Hawley. (2020). The Challenge of Maintaining Metabolic Health During a Global Pandemic. Sports Medicine. 50(7), pp. 1233-1241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01295-8
Key viral immune genes and pathways identify elite athletes with URS
Colbey, Candice, Drew, Michael K., Cox, Amanda J., Vider, Jelena, Pyne, David B., Vlahovich, Nicole, Hughes, David, Waddington, Gordon, Appaneal, Renee, Burke, Louise M., Lundy, Bronwen, Toomey, Mary, Watts, David, Lovell, Gregory, Praet, Stephan, Halson, Shona L., Welvaert, Marijke, Zhang, Ping, Cripps, Allan W. and West, Nicholas P. (2020). Key viral immune genes and pathways identify elite athletes with URS. Exercise Immunology Review. 26, pp. 56-78.
Criterion validity, and interunit and between-day reliability of the FLEX for measuring barbell velocity during commonly used resistance training exercises
Weakley, Jonathon, Chalkley, Daniel, Johnston, Rich, García-Ramos, Amador, Townshend, Andrew, Dorrell, Harry, Pearson, Madison, Morrison, Matthew and Cole, Michael. (2020). Criterion validity, and interunit and between-day reliability of the FLEX for measuring barbell velocity during commonly used resistance training exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(6), pp. 1519 - 1524. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003592
The application of mental fatigue research to elite team sport performance : New perspectives
Russell, Suzanna, Jenkins, David, Smith, Mitchell, Halson, Shona and Kelly, Vincent. (2019). The application of mental fatigue research to elite team sport performance : New perspectives. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 22(6), pp. 723-728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.12.008
Sleep monitoring in athletes : Motivation, methods, miscalculations and why it matters
Halson, Shona. (2019). Sleep monitoring in athletes : Motivation, methods, miscalculations and why it matters. Sports Medicine. 49(10), pp. 1487-1497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01119-4
Validity of real-time ultra-wideband global navigation satellite system data generated by a wearable microtechnology unit
Johnston, Rich D., Hewitt, Adam and Duthie, Grant. (2019). Validity of real-time ultra-wideband global navigation satellite system data generated by a wearable microtechnology unit. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(7), pp. 2071-2075. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003059
What is mental fatigue in elite sport? Perceptions from athletes and staff
Russell, Suzanna, Jenkins, David, Rynne, Steven, Halson, Shona L. and Kelly, Vincent. (2019). What is mental fatigue in elite sport? Perceptions from athletes and staff. European Journal of Sport Science. 19(10), pp. 1367-1376. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1618397
The influence of pre-season training loads on in-season match activities in professional Australian football players
Johnston, Rich D., Murray, Nicholas B. and Austin, Damien J.. (2019). The influence of pre-season training loads on in-season match activities in professional Australian football players. Science and Medicine in Football. 3(2), pp. 143-149. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2018.1501160
Sub-maximal heart rate is associated with changes in high-intensity intermittent running ability in professional rugby league players
Hulin, Billy T., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Rich D. and Jenkins, David G.. (2019). Sub-maximal heart rate is associated with changes in high-intensity intermittent running ability in professional rugby league players. Science and Medicine in Football. 3(1), pp. 50-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2018.1475748
Sleep patterns and alertness in an elite super rugby team during a game week
Dunican, Ian C., Higgin, Charles C., Murray, Kevin, Jones, Maddison J., Dawson, Brian, Caldwell, John A., Halson, Shona L. and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2019). Sleep patterns and alertness in an elite super rugby team during a game week. Journal of Human Kinetics. 67(1), pp. 111-121. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0088
Sleep and salivary testosterone and cortisol during a short preseason camp : A study in professional rugby union
Serpell, Benjamin G., Horgan, Barry G., Colomer, Carmen M. E., Field, Byron, Halson, Shona L. and Cook, Christian J.. (2019). Sleep and salivary testosterone and cortisol during a short preseason camp : A study in professional rugby union. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(6), pp. 796-804. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0600
Effects of various recovery strategies on repeated bouts of simulated intermittent activity
Crowther, Fiona A., Sealey, Rebecca M., Crowe, Melissa J., Edwards, Andrew M. and Halson, Shona L.. (2019). Effects of various recovery strategies on repeated bouts of simulated intermittent activity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(7), pp. 1781-1794. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002396
Cold water immersion attenuates anabolic signaling and skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, but not strength gain, following whole-body resistance training
Fyfe, Jackson J., Broatch, James R., Trewin, Adam J., Hanson, Erik D., Argus, Christos K., Garnham, Andrew P., Halson, Shona L., Polman, Remco C., Bishop, David J. and Petersen, Aaron C.. (2019). Cold water immersion attenuates anabolic signaling and skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, but not strength gain, following whole-body resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology. 127(5), pp. 1403-1418. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00127.2019
Rating of perceived challenge as a measure of internal load for technical skill performance
Hendricks, Sharief, Till, Kevin, Oliver, Jon L., Johnston, Rich D., Attwood, Matthew J., Brown, James Craig, Drake, David, MacLeod, Simon, Mellalieu, Stephen D. and Jones, Ben. (2019). Rating of perceived challenge as a measure of internal load for technical skill performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 53(10), pp. 611-613. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099871
Nutrition for travel : From jet lag to catering
Halson, Shona L., Burke, Louise M. and Pearce, Jeni. (2019). Nutrition for travel : From jet lag to catering. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 29(2), pp. 228-235. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0278
The effects of cold water immersion on the amount and quality of sleep obtained by elite cyclists during a simulated hill climbing tour
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, G. D., Halson, Shona and Sargent, C.. (2019). The effects of cold water immersion on the amount and quality of sleep obtained by elite cyclists during a simulated hill climbing tour. Sport Sciences for Health. 15(1), pp. 223 - 228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-018-0522-6
Using microtechnology to quantify torso angle during match-play in field hockey
Warman, Geoffrey Ernest, Cole, Michael H., Chalkley, Daniel, Johnston, richard and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2019). Using microtechnology to quantify torso angle during match-play in field hockey. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(10), pp. 2648 - 2654. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003238
Effects of sports compression socks on performance, physiological, and hematological alterations after long-haul air travel in elite female volleyballers
Broatch, James R., Bishop, David J., Zadow, Emma K. and Halson, Shona. (2019). Effects of sports compression socks on performance, physiological, and hematological alterations after long-haul air travel in elite female volleyballers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(2), pp. 492-501. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003002
The influence of contextual factors on running performance in female Australian football match-play
Black, Georgia M., Gabbett, Tim, Naughton, Geraldine, Cole, Michael H., Johnston, Richard and Dawson, Brian. (2019). The influence of contextual factors on running performance in female Australian football match-play. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(9), pp. 2488 - 2495. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002142
Influence of physical characteristics and match outcome on technical errors during rugby league match play
Johnston, Richard. (2019). Influence of physical characteristics and match outcome on technical errors during rugby league match play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(8), pp. 1043 - 1049. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0354
The peak duration-specific locomotor demands and concurrent collision frequencies of European Super League rugby
Weaving, Dan, Sawczuk, Thomas, Williams, Sean, Scott, Tannath, Till, Kevin, Beggs, Clive, Johnston, Rich D. and Jones, Ben. (2019). The peak duration-specific locomotor demands and concurrent collision frequencies of European Super League rugby. Journal of Sports Sciences. 37(3), pp. 322-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1500425
Monitoring athletes during training camps : Observations and translatable strategies from elite road cyclists and swimmers
Saw, Anna E., Halson, Shona L. and Mujika, Iñigo. (2018). Monitoring athletes during training camps : Observations and translatable strategies from elite road cyclists and swimmers. Sports. 6(3), p. Article 63. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030063
Technical skill training framework and skill load measurements for the rugby union tackle
Hendricks, Sharief, Till, Kevin, Oliver, Jon L., Johnston, Rich D., Attwood, Matthew, Brown, James, Drake, David, MacLeod, Simon, Mellalieu, Stephen D., Treu, Paul and Jones, Ben. (2018). Technical skill training framework and skill load measurements for the rugby union tackle. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 40(5), pp. 44-59. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000400
Longer sleep durations are positively associated with finishing place during a national multiday netball competition
Laura E. Juliff, Shona Halson, Jeffrey J. Hebert, Peta L. Forsyth and Jeremiah John Peiffer. (2018). Longer sleep durations are positively associated with finishing place during a national multiday netball competition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 32(1), pp. 189-194. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001793
Can sleep be used as an indicator of overreaching and overtraining in athletes?
Michelle Lastella, Grace E. Vincent, Rob Duffield, Gregory D. Roach, Shona Halson, Luke J. Heales and Charli Sargent. (2018). Can sleep be used as an indicator of overreaching and overtraining in athletes? Frontiers in Physiology. 9, pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00436
Recovery and performance in sport: Consensus statement
Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, Wolfgang Kallus, R Meeusen, I Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann. (2018). Recovery and performance in sport: Consensus statement. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(2), pp. 240-245. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0759
Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: A tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes
Matthew W Driller, Cheri D Mah and Shona Halson. (2018). Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: A tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes. Sleep Science. 11(1), pp. 37-44.
The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists
Woods, Amy L., Rice, Anthony J., Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., Wallett, Alice M., Lundy, Bronwen, Rogers, Margot A., Welvaert, Marijke, Halson, Shona, McKune, Andrew and Thompson, Kevin G.. (2018). The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists. PLoS ONE. 13(2), pp. 1 - 24. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191644
An integrated, multifactorial approach to periodization for optimal performance in individual and team sports
Mujika, Iñigo, Halson, Shona, Burke, Louise M., Balagué, Gloria and Farrow, Damian. (2018). An integrated, multifactorial approach to periodization for optimal performance in individual and team sports. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(5), pp. 538 - 561. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0093
Evening electronic device use: The effects on alertness, sleep and next-day physical performance in athletes
Jones, Maddison J., Peeling, Peter, Dawson, Brian, Halson, Shona, Miller, Joanna, Dunican, Ian C., Clarke, Michael W., Goodman, Craig and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2018). Evening electronic device use: The effects on alertness, sleep and next-day physical performance in athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences. 36(2), pp. 162 - 170. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1287936
The psychomotor vigilance test: A comparison of different test durations in elite athletes
Jones, Maddison J., Dunican, Ian C., Murray, Kevin, Peeling, Peter, Dawson, Brian, Halson, Shona, Miller, Joanna and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2018). The psychomotor vigilance test: A comparison of different test durations in elite athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences. 36(18), pp. 2033 - 2037. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1433443
Lower limb sports compression garments improve muscle blood flow and exercise performance during repeated-sprint cycling
Broatch, James R., Bishop, David J. and Halson, Shona. (2018). Lower limb sports compression garments improve muscle blood flow and exercise performance during repeated-sprint cycling. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(7), pp. 882 - 890. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0638
Applied sport science of Australian football: A systematic review
Johnston, Richard, Black, Georgia M., Harrison, Peter W., Murray, Nick B. and Austin, Damien J.. (2018). Applied sport science of Australian football: A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 48(7), pp. 1673 - 1694. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0919-z
Cold-water immersion for athletic recovery: One size does not fit all
Jessica M. Stephens, Shona Halson, Joanna Miller, Gary Slater and Christopher D. Askew. (2017). Cold-water immersion for athletic recovery: One size does not fit all. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(1), pp. 2-9. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0095
A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games
Drew, Michael K., Vlahovich, Nicole, Hughes, David, Appaneal, Renee, Peterson, Kirsten, Burke, Louise, Lundy, Bronwen, Toomey, Mary, Watts, David, Lovell, Gregory, Praet, Stephan, Halson, Shona, Colbey, Candice, Manzanero, Silvia, Welvaert, Marijke, West, Nic P., Pyne, David B. and Waddington, Gordon. (2017). A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(8), pp. 745 - 750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.02.010
Greater effect of east versus west travel on jet lag, sleep, and team sport performance
Fowler, Peter M., Knez, Wade, Crowcroft, Stephen, Mendham, Amy E., Miller, Joanna, Sargent, Charli, Halson, Shona and Duffield, Rob. (2017). Greater effect of east versus west travel on jet lag, sleep, and team sport performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49(12), pp. 2548 - 2561. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001374
Team sport athletes' perceptions and use of recovery strategies: A mixed-methods survey study
Crowther, Fiona, Sealey, Rebecca, Crowe, Melissa, Edwards, Andrew and Halson, Shona. (2017). Team sport athletes' perceptions and use of recovery strategies: A mixed-methods survey study. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 9(1), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-017-0071-3
Cold-water immersion and contrast water therapy: No improvement of short-term recovery after resistance training
Argus, Christos K., Broatch, James R., Petersen, Aaron C., Polman, Remco, Bishop, David J. and Halson, Shona. (2017). Cold-water immersion and contrast water therapy: No improvement of short-term recovery after resistance training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(7), pp. 886 - 892. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0127
Changes in rugby league tackling ability during a competitive season : The relationship with strength and power qualities
Speranza, Michael J. A., Gabbett, Tim J., Greene, David A., Johnston, Rich D. and Sheppard, Jeremy M.. (2017). Changes in rugby league tackling ability during a competitive season : The relationship with strength and power qualities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(12), pp. 3311-3318. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001540
Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games
Drew, Michael, Vlahovich, Nicole, Hughes, David, Appaneal, Renee, Burke, Louise, Lundy, Bronwen, Rogers, Margot, Toomey, Mary, Watts, David, Lovell, Gregory, Praet, Stephan F. E., Halson, Shona, Colbey, Candice, Manzanero, Silvia, Welvaert, Marijke, West, NIcholas P., Pyne, David and Waddington, Gordon. (2017). Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 52(1), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098208
Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play
Hulin, Billy T., Gabbett, Tim J., Johnston, Rich D. and Jenkins, David G.. (2017). Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(7), pp. 638-642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.006
Protein ingestion before sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial
Kouw, Imre W.K., Holwerda, Andrew M., Trommelen, Jorn, Kramer, Irene Fleur, Bastiaanse, Jacqueline, Halson, Shona, Wodzig, Will K.W.H., Verdijk, Lex B. and Van Loon, Luc. (2017). Protein ingestion before sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Nutrition. 147(12), pp. 2252 - 2261. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.117.254532
Influence of physical maturity status on sprinting speed among youth soccer players
McCunn, Robert, Weston, Matthew, Hill, John KA, Johnston, Richard and Gibson, Neil V.. (2017). Influence of physical maturity status on sprinting speed among youth soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(7), pp. 1795 - 1801. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001654
Software thresholds alter the bias of actigraphy for monitoring sleep in team-sport athletes
Fuller, Kate L., Juliff, Laura E., Gore, Christopher J., Peiffer, Jeremiah John and Halson, Shona. (2017). Software thresholds alter the bias of actigraphy for monitoring sleep in team-sport athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(8), pp. 756 - 760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.021
Influence of recovery strategies upon performance and perceptions following fatiguing exercise: A randomized controlled trial
Crowther, Fiona, Sealey, Rebecca, Crowe, Melissa, Edwards, Andrew and Halson, Shona. (2017). Influence of recovery strategies upon performance and perceptions following fatiguing exercise: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 9(1), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-017-0087-8
Effect of different repeated-high-intensity-effort bouts on subsequent running, skill performance, and neuromuscular function
Johnston, Rich D., Gabbett, Tim J., Jenkins, David G. and Speranza, Michael J.. (2016). Effect of different repeated-high-intensity-effort bouts on subsequent running, skill performance, and neuromuscular function. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 11(3), pp. 311-318. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0243
The chronotype of elite athletes
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, G. D., Halson, Shona and Sargent, C.. (2016). The chronotype of elite athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics. 54(1), pp. 219 - 225. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2016-0049
Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists
Martin, Kristy, Staiano, Walter, Menaspà, Paolo, Hennessey, Tom, Marcora, Samuele, Keegan, Richard J., Thompson, Kevin G., Martin, David, Halson, Shona and Rattray, Ben. (2016). Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists. PLoS ONE. 11(7), pp. 1 - 15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159907
Importance of standardized DXA protocol for assessing physique changes in athletes
Nana, Alisa, Slater, Gary J., Hopkins, Will, Halson, Shona, Martin, D. T., West, N. P. and Burke, Louise Mary. (2016). Importance of standardized DXA protocol for assessing physique changes in athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 26(3), pp. 259 - 267. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0111
Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout?
Johnston, Rich D., Gabbett, Tim J., Walker, Shane, Walker, Ben and Jenkins, David G.. (2015). Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout? Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(3), pp. 816-821. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000679
Nutrition and recovery
Halson, Shona and Burke, Louise Mary. (2015). Nutrition and recovery. In Tennis science : How player and racket work together pp. 116-135 University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226139623.001.0001
The impact of a simulated grand tour on sleep, mood, and well-being of competitive cyclists
Michelle Lastella, Gregory D Roach, Shona Halson, David Martin, Nicholas P West and Charli Sargent. (2015). The impact of a simulated grand tour on sleep, mood, and well-being of competitive cyclists. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 55(12), pp. 1555-1564.
Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions
Juliff, Laura E., Halson, Shona and Peiffer, Jeremiah John. (2015). Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 18(1), pp. 13 - 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.02.007
Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, Gregory D., Halson, Shona, Martin, David T., West, Nicholas P. and Sargent, Charli. (2015). Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(3), pp. 293 - 299. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.942690
Confounding compression: The effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing
Brophy-Williams, Ned, Driller, Matthew W., Shing, C., Fell, James W. and Halson, Shona. (2015). Confounding compression: The effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33(13), pp. 1403 - 1410. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.990489
The influence of physical fitness and playing standard on pacing strategies during a team-sport tournament
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim and Jenkins, David. (2015). The influence of physical fitness and playing standard on pacing strategies during a team-sport tournament. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10(8), pp. 1001 - 1008. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0005
Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players
Nédélec, Mathieu, Halson, Shona, Delecroix, Barthélémy, Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset, Ahmaidi, S. and Dupont, Gregory. (2015). Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players. Sports Medicine. 45(11), pp. 1547 - 1559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0377-9
Fatigue and pacing in rugby league players
Johnston, Richard. (2015). Fatigue and pacing in rugby league players [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a9cbe35b0b9e
Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: A critical review of the literature
Nédélec, Mathieu, Halson, Shona, Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset, Ahmaidi, S. and Dupont, Gregory. (2015). Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: A critical review of the literature. Sports Medicine. 45(10), pp. 1387 - 1400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0358-z
Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports
Lastella, Michelle, Roach, Gregory D., Halson, Shona and Sargent, Charli. (2015). Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports. European Journal of Sport Science. 15(2), pp. 94 - 100. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.932016
Influence of playing standard and physical fitness on activity profiles and post-match fatigue during intensified junior rugby league competition
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim and Jenkins, David. (2015). Influence of playing standard and physical fitness on activity profiles and post-match fatigue during intensified junior rugby league competition. Sports Medicine - Open. 1(18), pp. 1 - 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0015-y
Relationship between a standardized tackling proficiency test and match-play tackle performance in semiprofessional Rugby League players
Speranza, Michael, Gabbett, Tim, Johnston, Rich and Sheppard, Jeremy. (2015). Relationship between a standardized tackling proficiency test and match-play tackle performance in semiprofessional Rugby League players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 10(6), pp. 754 - 760. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0044
Muscular strength and power correlates of tackling ability in semiprofessional Rugby League players
Speranza, Michael, Gabbett, Tim, Johnston, Richard and Sheppard, Jeremy. (2015). Muscular strength and power correlates of tackling ability in semiprofessional Rugby League players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(8), pp. 2071 - 2078. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000897
Influence of contrast shower and water immersion on recovery in elite netballers
Juliff, Laura E., Halson, Shona, Bonetti, Darrell L., Versey, Nathan, Driller, Matthew W. and Peiffer, Jeremiah John. (2014). Influence of contrast shower and water immersion on recovery in elite netballers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 28(8), pp. 2353 - 2358. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000417
Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes
Halson, Shona. (2014). Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Medicine. 44(Suppl 2), pp. 139 - 147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0253-z
Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists?
Halson, Shona, Bartram, Jason C., West, Nicholas P., Stephens, Jessica M., Argus, Christos K., Driller, Matthew W., Sargent, Charli, Lastella, Michelle, Hopkins, Will G. and Martin, David T.. (2014). Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 46(8), pp. 1631 - 1639. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000268
Applied sport science of Rugby League
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim J. and Jenkins, David. (2014). Applied sport science of Rugby League. Sports Medicine: reviews of applied medicine and science in sport and exercise. 44(8), pp. 1087 - 1100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0190-x
Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers
Sargent, Charli, Halson, Shona and Roach, Gregory D.. (2014). Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers. European Journal of Sport Science. 14(Supplement 1), pp. 310 - 315. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2012.696711
Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep
Halson, Shona. (2014). Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Medicine. 44(Supplement 1), pp. 13 - 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0147-0
Influence of Physical Contact on Pacing Strategies During Game-Based Activities
Johnston, Rich, Gabbett, Tim, Seibold, Anthony and Jenkins, David. (2014). Influence of Physical Contact on Pacing Strategies During Game-Based Activities. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(5), pp. 811 - 816. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2013-0424
Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: A pilot study
Robey, Elisa, Dawson, Brian, Halson, Shona, Gregson, Warren, Goodman, Carmel and Eastwood, Peter R.. (2014). Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: A pilot study. European Journal of Sport Science. 14(5), pp. 410 - 417. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.843024
Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression clothing
Brophy-Williams, Ned, Driller, Matthew, Halson, Shona, Fell, James W. and Shing, C.. (2014). Evaluating the Kikuhime pressure monitor for use with sports compression clothing. Sports Engineering. 17(1), pp. 55 - 60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-013-0125-z
Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists
Hoon, Matthew, Hopkins, William, Jones, Andrew, Martin, David, Halson, Shona, West, Nicholas, Johnson, Nathan and Burke, Louise. (2014). Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 39(9), pp. 1043 - 1049. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0574
Reliability of a 2-bout exercise test on a wattbike cycle ergometer
Driller, Matthew W., Argus, Christos K., Bartram, Jason C., Bonaventura, Jacinta, Martin, David T., West, Nicholas P. and Halson, Shona. (2014). Reliability of a 2-bout exercise test on a wattbike cycle ergometer. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 9(2), pp. 340 - 345. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2013-0103
Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition
Johnston, Rich D., Gibson, Neil V., Twist, Craig, Gabbett, Tim. J., MacNay, Sophie A. and MacFarlane, Niall G.. (2013). Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 27(3), pp. 643-654. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825bb469
Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players
Gibson, Neil V., Currie, J., Johnston, Richard and Hill, J.. (2013). Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 53(1), pp. 9 - 16.
Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players
Johnston, Richard, Gabbett, Timothy and Jenkins, David. (2013). Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.10.009
Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling
Cox, Geoffrey, Clark, Sally, Cox, A, Halson, Shona, Hargreaves, M, Hawley, John, Jeacocke, N, Snow, Rod, Yeo, W and Burke, Louise. (2010). Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology. 109(1), pp. 126 - 134. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00950.2009
Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury
Ross, M, Halson, Shona, Suzuki, K, Garnham, A, Hawley, John, Cameron-Smith, David and Peake, J. (2010). Cytokine responses to carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. 30(5), pp. 329 - 337. https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.2009.0079