Protein intake at breakfast promotes a positive whole-body protein balance in a dose-response manner in healthy children : A randomized trial

Journal article


Karagounis, Leonidas G., Volterman, Kimberly A., Breuillé, Denis, Offord, Elizabeth A., Emady-Azar, Shahram and Moore, Daniel R.. (2018). Protein intake at breakfast promotes a positive whole-body protein balance in a dose-response manner in healthy children : A randomized trial. The Journal of Nutrition. 148(5), pp. 729-737. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy026
AuthorsKaragounis, Leonidas G., Volterman, Kimberly A., Breuillé, Denis, Offord, Elizabeth A., Emady-Azar, Shahram and Moore, Daniel R.
Abstract

Background
Protein ingestion promotes whole-body net protein balance (NB) in children, which is a prerequisite for growth. Determining how much protein is required at breakfast to promote a positive NB, which may be negative after the traditional overnight fast in children, has yet to be determined.

Objective
We determined the impact of incremental doses of milk protein at breakfast as well as the impact of daily dietary protein distribution on NB in children.

Methods
A total of 28 children [14 boys, 14 girls; age range: 7–11 y; body mass index (mean ± SD, in kg/m2): 16.0 ± 1.9] completed 2 intervention trials. During the breakfast meal, participants consumed an isoenergetic beverage with different amounts of protein (0, 7, 14, or 21 g for Groups A–D, respectively) and [15N]-glycine to measure whole body protein metabolism. Whole-body nitrogen turnover, protein synthesis (PS), protein breakdown, and NB were measured over 9 and 24 h.

Results
Following an overnight fast, children were in negative NB (–64.5 mg · kg−1 · h−1). Protein ingestion at breakfast induced a stepwise increase in NB over 9 h [Groups A (6.2 mg · kg−1 · h−1) < B (27.9 mg · kg−1 · h−1) < C (46.9 mg · kg−1 · h−1) < D (66.0 mg · kg−1 · h−1)] with all conditions different from each other (all P < 0.01). PS was 42% greater in Group D than in Group A over 9 h (P < 0.05).

Conclusions
Consuming ≥7 g of the total daily protein intake at breakfast attenuates the observed overnight protein losses in children during the subsequent 9 h following breakfast consumption. The dose-dependent increase in NB over a daytime fed period, inclusive of breakfast and lunch, highlights the importance of breakfast protein intake on acute anabolism in healthy active children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02465151.

Keywordschildren; breakfast; protein distribution; protein timing; growth
Year2018
JournalThe Journal of Nutrition
Journal citation148 (5), pp. 729-737
PublisherOxford University Press
ISSN0022-3166
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy026
PubMed ID30053279
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85047144641
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Page range729-737
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online02 May 2018
Publication process dates
Accepted30 Jan 2018
Deposited21 Nov 2023
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