X as a proxy for tackle safety culture? Sentiment analysis of social media posts on red-carded and yellow-carded tackles during the 2019 Rugby World Cup

Journal article


Alexander, Firdows, Tucker, Ross, Jones, Ben and Hendricks, Sharief. (2023). X as a proxy for tackle safety culture? Sentiment analysis of social media posts on red-carded and yellow-carded tackles during the 2019 Rugby World Cup. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 9(4), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2023-001756
AuthorsAlexander, Firdows, Tucker, Ross, Jones, Ben and Hendricks, Sharief
Abstract

Objectives: This study analysed the overall sentiment of attitudes, opinions, views and emotions expressed in posts on X related to red-carded and yellow-carded tackles during the 2019 Rugby World Cup (RWC).

Methods: Sentiment analysis was conducted on posts on X about red or yellow cards issued at the 2019 RWC. Posts were classified as ‘agree’, ‘disagree’ and ‘neutral’. The frequency of posts, red cards, yellow cards, all injuries, tackle injuries and total number of tackles per match were also synced to the 45-match playing schedule.

Results: Five tackle-related red cards were issued during the 2019 RWC, and 15 tackle-related yellow cards, with 337 and 302 posts identified for each card decision, respectively. For red cards, 42% of posts (n=158/377) agreed with the referee’s decision, 19% (n=71/377) disagreed and 40% were neutral. For yellow cards, 24% (n=73/302) agreed with the referee’s decision, 33% (n=99/302) disagreed and 43% were neutral.

Conclusions: For red cards, posts were 2.2 times more likely to agree with the referee’s decision than disagree. Posts that agreed with a red card decision were also more likely to be shared (reposted) than posts that disagreed with a red card decision. In contrast, sentiments expressed for yellow card decisions were mixed. This may be related to interpreting the degree of danger and whether mitigation is applied. Within the ecosystem of rugby, sharing sentiments on social media plays a powerful role in creating a positive player welfare narrative.

KeywordsRugby union; concussion; Rugby World Cup; red card; yellow card; tackles; X; Twitter; Culture
Year01 Jan 2023
JournalBMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Journal citation9 (4), pp. 1-9
PublisherBMJ GROUP
ISSN2055-7647
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2023-001756
Web address (URL)https://bmjopensem.bmj.com/content/9/4/e001756
Open accessPublished as non-open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1-9
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online25 Oct 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted19 Oct 2023
Deposited20 Mar 2024
Additional information

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023.

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
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