Quantitative evaluation of the major determinants of human gait

Journal article


Lin, Yi-Chung, Gfoehler, Margit and Pandy, Marcus. (2014). Quantitative evaluation of the major determinants of human gait. Journal of Biomechanics. 47(6), pp. 1324-1331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.02.002
AuthorsLin, Yi-Chung, Gfoehler, Margit and Pandy, Marcus
Abstract

Accurate knowledge of the isolated contributions of joint movements to the three-dimensional displacement of the center of mass (COM) is fundamental for understanding the kinematics of normal walking and for improving the treatment of gait disabilities. Saunders et al. (1953) identified six kinematic mechanisms to explain the efficient progression of the whole-body COM in the sagittal, transverse, and coronal planes. These mechanisms, referred to as the major determinants of gait, were pelvic rotation, pelvic list, stance knee flexion, foot and knee mechanisms, and hip adduction. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively assess the contribution of each major gait determinant to the anteroposterior, vertical, and mediolateral displacements of the COM over one gait cycle. The contribution of each gait determinant was found by applying the concept of an ‘influence coefficient’, wherein the partial derivative of the COM displacement with respect to a prescribed determinant was calculated. The analysis was based on three-dimensional measurements of joint angular displacements obtained from 23 healthy young adults walking at slow, normal and fast speeds. We found that hip flexion, stance knee flexion, and ankle-foot interaction (comprised of ankle plantarflexion, toe flexion and the displacement of the center of pressure) are the major determinants of the displacements of the COM in the sagittal plane, while hip adduction and pelvic list contribute most significantly to the mediolateral displacement of the COM in the coronal plane. Pelvic rotation and pelvic list contribute little to the vertical displacement of the COM at all walking speeds. Pelvic tilt, hip rotation, subtalar inversion, and back extension, abduction and rotation make negligible contributions to the displacements of the COM in all three anatomical planes.

KeywordsCompass gait ; Normal walking ; Pathological walking ; Center-of-mass displacement ; Knee flexion; Hip flexion; Hip adduction; Pelvic list ; Ankle plantarflexion
Year01 Jan 2014
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Journal citation47 (6), pp. 1324-1331
PublisherElsevier
ISSN0021-9290
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.02.002
Web address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021929014000888?via%3Dihub
Open accessPublished as non-open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1324-1331
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All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Print14 Feb 2014
Publication process dates
Accepted08 Feb 2014
Deposited16 May 2024
Supplemental file
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
ARC Funded ResearchThis output has been funded, wholly or partially, under the Australian Research Council Act 2001
Additional information

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This work was supported by an Australian Research Council Grant (DP0878705) and a VESKI Innovation Fellowship awarded to MGP. We thank Anthony Schache, Tim Dorn, Nick Brown, Yoong Ping Lim, and Mirjana Jancic for their assistance with the gait experiments.

Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
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