Ethnic differences in overweight and obesity and the influence of acculturation on immigrant bodyweight: Evidence from a national sample of Australian adults

Journal article


Menigoz, Karen, Nathan, Andrea G. and Turrell, Gavin 2016. Ethnic differences in overweight and obesity and the influence of acculturation on immigrant bodyweight: Evidence from a national sample of Australian adults. BMC Public Health. 16 (932), pp. 1 - 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3608-6
AuthorsMenigoz, Karen, Nathan, Andrea G. and Turrell, Gavin
Abstract

Background Despite growing international migration and documented ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in developed countries, no research has described the epidemiology of immigrant overweight and obesity at a national level in Australia, a country where immigrants comprise 28.1 % of the population. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obesity in Australia and the influence of acculturation on bodyweight among Australian immigrants. Methods Data from the national Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey were used to examine mean BMI and odds of overweight/obesity comparing immigrants (n = 2 997) with Australian born (n = 13 047). Among immigrants, acculturation differences were examined by length of residence in Australia and age at migration. Data were modelled in a staged approach using multilevel linear and logistic regression, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Relative to Australian born, men from North Africa/Middle East and Oceania regions had significantly higher BMIs, and men from North West Europe, North East Asia and Southern and Central Asia had significantly lower BMIs. Among women, the majority of foreign born groups had significantly lower BMIs compared with Australian born. Male and female immigrants living in Australia for 15 years or more had significantly higher BMIs and increased odds of being overweight/obese respectively, compared with immigrants living in Australia for less than 5 years. Male immigrants arriving as adolescents were twice more likely to be overweight/obese and had significantly higher BMIs than immigrants who arrived as adults. Male and female immigrants who arrived as children (≤11 years) had significantly higher odds of adult overweight/obesity and BMIs. Conclusions This study provides evidence of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in Australia with male immigrants from North Africa/Middle East and Oceania regions being particularly vulnerable. In addition, this study suggests that greater acculturation may negatively impact immigrant bodyweight and recently arrived immigrants as well as those who arrive as children or adolescents may benefit from obesity prevention intervention. Public health policy targeted at and tailored to these immigrant cohorts will assist in the multi-pronged approach required to address the obesity epidemic.

KeywordsObesity; BMI; Bodyweight; Ethnicity; Immigrant; Minority; Acculturation; Prevention; Inequality; Australia
Year2016
JournalBMC Public Health
Journal citation16 (932), pp. 1 - 13
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3608-6
Scopus EID2-s2.0-84984914892
Open accessOpen access
Page range1 - 13
Research GroupInstitute for Health and Ageing
Publisher's version
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Turrell, Gavin, Haynes, Michele A., Wilson, Lee-Ann and Giles-Corti, Billie 2013. Can the built environment reduce health inequalities? A study of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and walking for transport. Health and Place. 19 (1), pp. 89 - 98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.10.008
Who does well where? Exploring how self-rated health differs across diverse people and neighborhoods
Badland, Hannah, Turrell, Gavin and Giles-Corti, Billie 2013. Who does well where? Exploring how self-rated health differs across diverse people and neighborhoods. Health and Place. 22, pp. 82 - 89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2013.03.006
Using GPS technology to (re)-examine operational definitions of 'neighbourhood' in place-based health research
Boruff, Bryan, Nathan, Andrea Grace and Nijënstein, Sandra 2012. Using GPS technology to (re)-examine operational definitions of 'neighbourhood' in place-based health research. International Journal of Health Geographics. 11 (22), pp. 22 - 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-11-22
The association between objectively measured neighbourhood features and walking for transport in mid-aged adults
Wilson, Lee-Ann, Giles-Corti, Billie and Turrell, Gavin 2012. The association between objectively measured neighbourhood features and walking for transport in mid-aged adults. Local Environment. 17 (2), pp. 131 - 146. https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2011.646965
Mid-aged adults' sitting time in three contexts
Burton, Nicola W., Haynes, Michele, van Uffelen, Jannique G. Z., Brown, Wendy J. and Turrell, Gavin 2012. Mid-aged adults' sitting time in three contexts. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 42 (4), pp. 363 - 373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.11.012
Access to commercial destinations within the neighbourhood and walking among Australian older adults
Nathan, Andrea Grace, Pereira, Gavin, Foster, Sarah, Hooper, Paula, Saarloos, Dick and Giles-Corti, Billie 2012. Access to commercial destinations within the neighbourhood and walking among Australian older adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 9 (133), pp. 133 - 140. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-133
Spatial inequalities in colorectal and breast cancer survival: Premature deaths and associated factors
Cramb, Susanna M., Mengersen, Kerrie, Turrell, Gavin and Baade, Peter 2012. Spatial inequalities in colorectal and breast cancer survival: Premature deaths and associated factors. Health and Place. 18 (6), pp. 1412 - 1421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.07.006
Applying the ecological model of behavior change to a physical activity trial in retirement communities: Description of the study protocol
Kerr, Jacqueline, Rosenberg, Dori E., Nathan, Andrea Grace, Millstein, Rachel A., Carlson, Jordan A., Crist, Katie, Wasilenko, Kari, Bolling, Khalisa, Castro, Cynthia M., Buchner, David M. and Marshall, Simon J. 2012. Applying the ecological model of behavior change to a physical activity trial in retirement communities: Description of the study protocol. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 33 (6), pp. 1180 - 1188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2012.08.005
Spatial inequalities in colorectal and breast cancer survival: premature deaths and associated factors.
Cramb, Susanna M., Mengersen, Kerrie, Turrell, Gavin and Baade, Peter D. 2012. Spatial inequalities in colorectal and breast cancer survival: premature deaths and associated factors. Health and Place. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.07.006
Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular mortality and the role of childhood socioeconomic conditions and adulthood risk factors: A prospective cohort study with 17-years of follow up
Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M., Turrell, Gavin, Giskes, Katrina, Mackenbach, Johan P. and van Lenthe, Frank J. 2012. Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular mortality and the role of childhood socioeconomic conditions and adulthood risk factors: A prospective cohort study with 17-years of follow up. BMC Public Health. 12 (1045), pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-1045
The influence of neighbourhood disadvantage on smoking cessation and its contribution to inequalities in smoking status
Turrell, Gavin, Hewitt, Belinda A. and Miller, Sophie A. 2012. The influence of neighbourhood disadvantage on smoking cessation and its contribution to inequalities in smoking status. Drug and Alcohol Review. 31 (5), pp. 645 - 652. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2012.00452.x
Marital loss, mental health and the role of perceived social support: Findings from six waves of an Australian population based panel study
Hewitt, Belinda, Turrell, Gavin and Giskes, Katrina 2012. Marital loss, mental health and the role of perceived social support: Findings from six waves of an Australian population based panel study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.104893
Contribution of take-out food consumption to socioeconomic differences in fruit and vegetable intake: A mediation analysis
Miura, Kyoko, Giskes, Katrina and Turrell, Gavin 2011. Contribution of take-out food consumption to socioeconomic differences in fruit and vegetable intake: A mediation analysis. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2011.07.009
Validation of de-identified record linkage to ascertain hospital admissions in a cohort study
Beauchamp, Allison, Tonkin, Andrew, Kelsall, Helen, Sundararajan, Vijaya, English, Dallas, Sundaresan, Lalitha, Wolfe, Rory, Turrell, Gavin, Giles, Graham G. and Peeters, A. 2011. Validation of de-identified record linkage to ascertain hospital admissions in a cohort study. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 11 (42), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-42
A multilevel investigation of inequalities in clinical and psychosocial outcomes for women after breast cancer
Youl, Philippa H., Baade, Peter D., Aitken, Joanne, Chambers, Suzanne K., Turrell, Gavin, Pyke, Christopher and Dunn, Jeffery 2011. A multilevel investigation of inequalities in clinical and psychosocial outcomes for women after breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 11 (415), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-415
The association between objectively measured neighborhood features and walking in middle-aged adults
Wilson, Lee-Ann M., Giles-Corti, Billie, Burton, Nicola W., Giskes, Katrina, Haynes, Michele A. and Turrell, Gavin 2011. The association between objectively measured neighborhood features and walking in middle-aged adults. American Journal of Health Promotion. 25 (4), pp. e12 - e21. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.090421-QUAN-144
Geographic remoteness and risk of advanced colorectal cancer at diagnosis in Queensland: a multilevel study
Baade, Peter, Dasgupta, Paramita, Aitken, Joanne and Turrell, Gavin 2011. Geographic remoteness and risk of advanced colorectal cancer at diagnosis in Queensland: a multilevel study. British Journal of Cancer. 105 (7), pp. 1039 - 1041. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2011.356
Distance to the closest radiotherapy facility and survival after a diagnosis of rectal cancer in queensland
Baade, Peter D., Dasgupta, Paramita, Aitken, Joanne F. and Turrell, Gavin 2011. Distance to the closest radiotherapy facility and survival after a diagnosis of rectal cancer in queensland. Medical Journal of Australia. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja10.11204
Individual and household-level socioeconomic position is associated with harmful alcohol consumption behaviours among adults
Giskes, Katrina, Turrell, Gavin, Bentley, Rebecca and Kavanagh, Anne 2011. Individual and household-level socioeconomic position is associated with harmful alcohol consumption behaviours among adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 35 (3), pp. 270 - 277. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2011.00683.x
Geographic remoteness, area-level socio-economic disadvantage and advanced breast cancer: A cross-sectional, multilevel study
Baade, Peter D., Turrell, Gavin and Aitken, Joan F. 2011. Geographic remoteness, area-level socio-economic disadvantage and advanced breast cancer: A cross-sectional, multilevel study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 65 (11), pp. 1037 - 1043. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2010.114777
The association between sedentary leisure and physical activity in middle-aged adults
Burton, Nicola W., Khan, Asaduzzaman, Brown, Wendy J. and Turrell, Gavin 2011. The association between sedentary leisure and physical activity in middle-aged adults. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 46, pp. 747 - 752. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2010.081430
Test-retest reliability of perceptions of the neighborhood environment for physical activity by socioeconomic status
Turrell, Gavin, Haynes, Michele A., O'Flaherty, Martin, Burton, Nicola W., Giskes, Katrina, Giles-Corti, Billie and Wilson, Lee-Ann 2011. Test-retest reliability of perceptions of the neighborhood environment for physical activity by socioeconomic status. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 8 (6), pp. 829 - 840. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.8.6.829
Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women
Siu, Jessica, Giskes, Katrina, Shaw, Jonathan and Turrell, Gavin 2011. Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 35, pp. 284 - 291. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00705.x
Traditional birth attendant training and local birthing practices in India
Saravanan, Sheela, Turrell, Gavin, Johnson, Helen, Fraser, Jenny and Patterson, Carla 2011. Traditional birth attendant training and local birthing practices in India. Evaluation and Program Planning. 34 (3), pp. 254 - 265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2011.02.012
Birthing practices of traditional birth attendants in South Asia in the context of training programmes
Saravanan, Sheela, Turrell, Gavin, Johnson, Helen and Fraser, Jennifer 2010. Birthing practices of traditional birth attendants in South Asia in the context of training programmes. Journal of Health Management. 12 (2), pp. 93 - 121. https://doi.org/10.1177/097206341001200201
A multilevel study of the determinants of area-level inequalities in colorectal cancer survival
Baade, Peter, Turrell, Gavin and Aitken, Joanne 2010. A multilevel study of the determinants of area-level inequalities in colorectal cancer survival. BMC Cancer. 10 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-24
Associations among smoking status, lifestyle and lipoprotein subclasses
Beauchamp, Allison, Tonkin, Andrew, Peeters, A, Wolfe, R, Turrell, Gavin, Harriss, Linton, Giles, Graham G., English, Dallas and Jenkins, Alicia J. 2010. Associations among smoking status, lifestyle and lipoprotein subclasses. Journal of Clinical Lipidology. 4 (6), pp. 522 - 530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2010.09.003
Inequalities in cardiovascular disease mortality: the role of behavioural, physiological and social risk factors.
Beauchamp, Allison, Peeters, A., Wolfe, R., Turrell, Gavin, Harriss, Linton, Giles, Graham G., English, Dallas, McNeil, John, Magliano, Dianna J., Harrap, Stephen, Liew, Danny, Hunt, David and Tonkin, Andrew 2010. Inequalities in cardiovascular disease mortality: the role of behavioural, physiological and social risk factors. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 64 (6), pp. 542 - 548. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.094516
Socioeconomic position, gender, health behaviours and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and diabetes
Kavanagh, Anne M., Bentley, Rebecca J., Turrell, Gavin, Shaw, J. E., Dunstan, David and Subramanian, S V. 2010. Socioeconomic position, gender, health behaviours and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Social Science & Medicine. 71 (6), pp. 1150 - 1160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.05.038
Neighborhood Disadvantage and Physical Activity: Baseline Results from the HABITAT Multilevel Longitudinal Study
Turrell, Gavin, Haynes, Michele A., Burton, Nicola W., Giles-Corti, Billie, Oldenburg, Brian, Wilson, Lee-Ann, Giskes, Katrina and Brown, Wendy 2010. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Physical Activity: Baseline Results from the HABITAT Multilevel Longitudinal Study. Annals of Epidemiology. 20 (3), pp. 171 - 181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.11.004
Best practice for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease through an equity lens: A review
Beauchamp, Allison, Peeters, A., Tonkin, Andrew and Turrell, Gavin 2010. Best practice for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease through an equity lens: A review. European Journal of Preventative Cardiology. 17 (5), pp. 599 - 606. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJR.0b013e328339cc99
HABITAT: A longitudinal multilevel study of physical activity change in mid-aged adults
Burton, Nicola W., Haynes, Michele A., Wilson, Lee-Ann, Giles-Corti, Billie, Oldenburg, Brian, Brown, Wendy, Giskes, Katrina and Turrell, Gavin 2009. HABITAT: A longitudinal multilevel study of physical activity change in mid-aged adults. BMC Public Health. 9 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-76
A multilevel study of area socio-economic status and food purchasing behaviour
Turrell, Gavin, Bentley, Rebecca J., Thomas, Lyndal R., Jolley, Damien, Subramanian, S V. and Kavanagh, Anne M. 2009. A multilevel study of area socio-economic status and food purchasing behaviour. Public Health Nutrition. 12 (11), pp. 2074 - 2083. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980009004911
Socioeconomic differences in takeaway food consumption and their contribution to inequalities in dietary intakes
Miura, Kyoko, Giskes, Katrina and Turrell, Gavin 2009. Socioeconomic differences in takeaway food consumption and their contribution to inequalities in dietary intakes. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 63 (10), pp. 820 - 826. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2008.086504
Social roles and birthing practices of traditional birth attendants in India with reference to other developing countries
Saravanan, Sheela, Johnson, Helen, Turrell, Gavin and Fraser, Jennifer 2009. Social roles and birthing practices of traditional birth attendants in India with reference to other developing countries. Asian Journal of Women's Studies. 15 (4), pp. 57 - 89. https://doi.org/10.1080/12259276.2009.11666078
Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia
Zhang, Jianzhen, Oldenburg, Brian and Turrell, Gavin 2009. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. BMC Health Services Research. 9 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-9-218
Affluent neighborhoods reduce excess risk of tooth loss among the poor
Sanders, Anne E., Turrell, Gavin and Slade, Gary D. 2008. Affluent neighborhoods reduce excess risk of tooth loss among the poor. Journal of Dental Research. 87 (10), pp. 969 - 973. https://doi.org/10.1177/154405910808701006
Socioeconomic position at different stages of the life course and its influence on body weight and weight gain in adulthood: A longitudinal study with 13-year follow-up
Giskes, Katrina, van Lenthe, Frank J., Turrell, Gavin, Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M., Brugemann, Johan and Mackenbach, Johan P. 2008. Socioeconomic position at different stages of the life course and its influence on body weight and weight gain in adulthood: A longitudinal study with 13-year follow-up. Obesity. 16 (6), pp. 1377 - 1381. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.54
Area disadvantage, individual socio-economic position, and premature cancer mortality in Australia 1998 to 2000: A multilevel analysis
Bentley, Rebecca J., Kavanagh, Anne M., Subramanian, S. V. and Turrell, Gavin 2008. Area disadvantage, individual socio-economic position, and premature cancer mortality in Australia 1998 to 2000: A multilevel analysis. Cancer Causes and Control. 19 (2), pp. 183 - 193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-007-9084-7
Socioeconomic disadvantage and the purchase of takeaway food: A multilevel analysis
Turrell, Gavin and Giskes, Katrina 2008. Socioeconomic disadvantage and the purchase of takeaway food: A multilevel analysis. Appetite. 51 (1), pp. 69 - 81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.12.002
Area variation in recreational cycling in Melbourne: A compositional or contextual effect?
Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M., Giskes, Katrina, Kavanagh, Anne M., Thornton, Lukar, Thomas, Lyndal R., van Lenthe, Frank J., Mackenbach, Johan P. and Turrell, Gavin 2008. Area variation in recreational cycling in Melbourne: A compositional or contextual effect? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 62 (10), pp. 890 - 898. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2007.067116
Do places affect the probability of death in Australia? A multilevel study of area-level disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and all-cause mortality, 1998-2000
Turrell, Gavin, Kavanagh, Anne M., Draper, Glenn and Subramanian, S V. 2007. Do places affect the probability of death in Australia? A multilevel study of area-level disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and all-cause mortality, 1998-2000. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 61 (1), pp. 13 - 19. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2006.046094
Measuring psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity among adults
Burton, Nicola W., Turrell, Gavin, Oldenburg, Brian and Sallis, Jim 2007. Measuring psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity among adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 31 (1), pp. 36 - 43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2007.00008.x
The independent contribution of neighborhood disadvantage and individual-level socioeconomic position to self-reported oral health: A multilevel analysis
Turrell, Gavin, Sanders, Anne E., Slade, Gary D., Spencer, A John and Marcenes, Wagner 2007. The independent contribution of neighborhood disadvantage and individual-level socioeconomic position to self-reported oral health: A multilevel analysis. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 35 (3), pp. 195 - 206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2006.00311.x
Socioeconomic inequalities in food purchasing: The contribution of respondent-perceived and actual (objectively measured) price and availability of foods
Giskes, Katrina, van Lenthe, Frank J., Mackenbach, Johan P. and Turrell, Gavin 2007. Socioeconomic inequalities in food purchasing: The contribution of respondent-perceived and actual (objectively measured) price and availability of foods. Preventive Medicine. 45 (1), pp. 41 - 48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.04.007
Does psychological stress mediate social deprivation in tooth loss?
Sanders, Anne E., Slade, Gary D., Turrell, Gavin, Spencer, A John and Marcenes, Wagner 2007. Does psychological stress mediate social deprivation in tooth loss? Journal of Dental Research. 86 (12), pp. 1166 - 1170. https://doi.org/10.1177/154405910708601205
Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and across the life course and all-cause mortality and physical function in adulthood: Evidence from the Alameda County Study
Turrell, Gavin, Lynch, John, Leite, Claudia, Raghunathan, Trivellore and Kaplan, George A. 2007. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and across the life course and all-cause mortality and physical function in adulthood: Evidence from the Alameda County Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 61 (8), pp. 723 - 730. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2006.050609
Smokers living in deprived areas are less likely to quit: A longitudinal follow-up
Giskes, Katrina, van Lenthe, Frank J., Turrell, Gavin, Brugemann, Johan and Mackenbach, Johan P. 2006. Smokers living in deprived areas are less likely to quit: A longitudinal follow-up. Tobacco Control. 15 (6), pp. 485 - 488. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2006.015750
Weight and place: A multilevel cross-sectional survey of area-level social disadvantage and overweight/obesity in Australia
King, Tania, Kavanagh, Anne M., Jolley, Damien, Turrell, Gavin and Crawford, David 2006. Weight and place: A multilevel cross-sectional survey of area-level social disadvantage and overweight/obesity in Australia. International Journal of Obesity. 30 (2), pp. 281 - 287. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803176
Does living in a disadvantaged area mean fewer opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in the area? Findings from the Brisbane food study
Winkler, Elizabeth A. H., Turrell, Gavin and Patterson, Carla 2006. Does living in a disadvantaged area mean fewer opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in the area? Findings from the Brisbane food study. Health and Place. 12 (3), pp. 306 - 319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2006.01.003
A multilevel study of socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour and dietary intake among the Dutch population: The GLoBE study
Giskes, Katrina, Turrell, Gavin, van Lenthe, Frank J., Brugemann, Johan and Mackenbach, Johan P. 2006. A multilevel study of socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour and dietary intake among the Dutch population: The GLoBE study. Public Health Nutrition. 9 (1), pp. 75 - 83. https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2005758
Does gender modify associations between self rated health and the social and economic characteristics of local environments?
Kavanagh, Anne M., Bentley, Rebecca J., Turrell, Gavin, Broom, Dorothy H. and Subramanian, S V. 2006. Does gender modify associations between self rated health and the social and economic characteristics of local environments? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 60 (6), pp. 490 - 495. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.043562
Area variation in mortality in Tasmania (Australia): The contributions of socioeconomic disadvantage, social capital and geographic remoteness
Turrell, Gavin, Kavanagh, Anne M. and Subramanian, S. V. 2006. Area variation in mortality in Tasmania (Australia): The contributions of socioeconomic disadvantage, social capital and geographic remoteness. Health and Place. 12 (3), pp. 291 - 305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2004.08.012
Socio-economic pathways to diet: Modelling the association between socio-economic position and food purchasing behaviour
Turrell, Gavin and Kavanagh, Anne M. 2006. Socio-economic pathways to diet: Modelling the association between socio-economic position and food purchasing behaviour. Public Health Nutrition. 9 (3), pp. 375 - 383. https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2006850
Does area-based social capital matter for the health of Australians? A multilevel analysis of self-rated health in Tasmania
Kavanagh, Anne M., Turrell, Gavin and Subramanian, S. V. 2006. Does area-based social capital matter for the health of Australians? A multilevel analysis of self-rated health in Tasmania. International Journal of Epidemiology. 35 (3), pp. 607 - 613. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl010
The shape of the socioeconomic-oral health gradient: Implications for theoretical explanations
Sanders, Anne E., Slade, Gary D., Turrell, Gavin, Spencer, A John and Marcenes, Wagner 2006. The shape of the socioeconomic-oral health gradient: Implications for theoretical explanations. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 34 (4), pp. 310 - 319. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2006.00286.x
Does living in a disadvantaged area entail limited opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in terms of price, availability, and variety? Findings from the Brisbane Food Study
Winkler, Elizabeth A. H., Turrell, Gavin and Patterson, Carla 2006. Does living in a disadvantaged area entail limited opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in terms of price, availability, and variety? Findings from the Brisbane Food Study. Health and Place. 12 (4), pp. 741 - 748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2005.09.006
Urban area disadvantage and physical activity: A multilevel study in Melbourne, Australia
Kavanagh, Anne M., Goller, Jane L., King, Tania, Jolley, Damien, Crawford, David and Turrell, Gavin 2005. Urban area disadvantage and physical activity: A multilevel study in Melbourne, Australia. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 59 (11), pp. 934 - 940. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.035931
Childhood and Adult Socioeconomic Conditions and 31-Year Mortality Risk in Women
Beene-Dimmer, Jennifer, Lynch, John, Turrell, Gavin, Lustgarten, Stephanie, Raghunathan, Trivellore and Kaplan, George A. 2004. Childhood and Adult Socioeconomic Conditions and 31-Year Mortality Risk in Women. American Journal of Epidemiology. 159 (5), pp. 481 - 490. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh057
Utilisation of general practitioner services by socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness
Turrell, Gavin, Oldenburg, Brian, Harris, Elizabeth and Jolley, Damien 2004. Utilisation of general practitioner services by socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 28 (2), pp. 152 - 158. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-842X.2004.tb00929.x
A multilevel analysis of socioeconomic (small area) differences in household food purchasing behaviour
Turrell, Gavin, Blakely, Tony, Patterson, Carla and Oldenburg, Brian 2004. A multilevel analysis of socioeconomic (small area) differences in household food purchasing behaviour. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 58 (3), pp. 208 - 215. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2003.011031