Australian nurses' perceptions of the use of manual restraint in the Emergency Department: A qualitative perspective

Journal article


Chapman, Rosemary, Ogle, Kaye Robyn, Martin, Catherine Ann, Rahman, Asheq, McKenna, Brian Grant and Barnfield, Jakqui. (2016) Australian nurses' perceptions of the use of manual restraint in the Emergency Department: A qualitative perspective. Journal of Clinical Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13159
AuthorsChapman, Rosemary, Ogle, Kaye Robyn, Martin, Catherine Ann, Rahman, Asheq, McKenna, Brian Grant and Barnfield, Jakqui
Abstract

Aims and objectives: To explore emergency nurses perceptions of the use of manual restraint. Background: Manual restraint of patients has historically been an accepted practice, though little is known about the use of manual restraint in general hospitals. Design: A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory, study was undertaken. Method: Fifteen semi-structured interviews with emergency nurses were completed. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis procedures. Results: The following themes were identified: ‘part of the job’, ‘reasons for manual restraint’, ‘restraint techniques’, ‘consequences’ and ‘lack of documentation’. Manual restraint occurred frequently each shift and most were not documented. This may be due to nurse's perceptions that manually restraining a patient did not comprise formal restraint and was the only option. Nurses used manual restraint to manage patients who were violent and aggressive or to perform procedures. However, they reported a lack of education and training in manual restraint. Nurses identified several consequences for the patient, staff and the organisation as a result of these events including psychological and physical injuries. Conclusions: Empirical research of prevalence and issues surrounding manual restraint events is required to inform health care organisations and government to develop, implement and evaluate appropriate policies and strategies to ensure safety of patients and staff. The employment of peer support workers and professionals with expertise in mental health and dementia may aid in the reduction of manual restraint events and improve care of all patients within the Emergency Department. Research on manual restraint in health settings is also needed.

KeywordsEmergency Department; manual restraint; nurses; perceptions; qualitative; violence and aggression
Year2016
JournalJournal of Clinical Nursing
PublisherBlackwell Publishing Ltd
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13159
Research GroupSchool of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
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Prebble, Kate, Kidd, Jacquie Dianne, O'Brien, Anthony, Carlyle, Dave, McKenna, Brian, Crowe, Marie, Deering, Daryle and Gooder, Claire. (2011) Implementing and maintaining nurse-led healthy living programs in forensic inpatient settings :An illustrative case study. Journal of American Psychiatric Nurses Association. 17(2), pp. 127 - 138. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078390311399094
Suicide online :portrayal of website-related suicide by the New Zealand media
Thom, Katey, Edwards, Gareth, Nakarada-Kordic, Ivana, McKenna, Brian, O'Brien, Anthony and Nairn, Raymond. (2011) Suicide online :portrayal of website-related suicide by the New Zealand media. New Media and Society. 13(8), pp. 1355 - 1372. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444811406521
Use of Tasers on people with mental illness. A New Zealand database study
O'Brien, Anthony, McKenna, Brian, Thom, Katey, Diesfeld, Kate and Simpson, Alexander. (2011) Use of Tasers on people with mental illness. A New Zealand database study. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 34(1), pp. 39 - 43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2010.11.006
Insanity, methamphetamine and psychiatric expertise in New Zealand courtrooms
Thom, Katey, Finlayson, Mary and Mckenna, Brian. (2011) Insanity, methamphetamine and psychiatric expertise in New Zealand courtrooms. Journal of law and medicine. 18(4), pp. 749 - 758.
Mental health and addiction services in the criminal justice system: Where do we sit?
McKenna, Brian. (2011) Mental health and addiction services in the criminal justice system: Where do we sit? International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 20(2), pp. 75 - 76. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0349.2010.00738.x
Two hour glucose post loading :A biomarker of cardiovascular risk in isolated clinic hypertension
Martin, Catherine, Cameron, James, Chen, Suzi and McGrath, Barry. (2011) Two hour glucose post loading :A biomarker of cardiovascular risk in isolated clinic hypertension. Journal of Hypertension. 29(4), pp. 749 - 757. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e328342eeeb
In search of a national approach to professional supervision for mental health and addiction nurses : The New Zealand experience
McKenna, Brian, Thom, Katey, Howard, Fiona and Williams, Val. (2010) In search of a national approach to professional supervision for mental health and addiction nurses : The New Zealand experience. Contemporary Nurse: Health care across the lifespan. 34(2), pp. 267 - 276. https://doi.org/10.5172/conu.2010.34.2.267
Shaping an Australian nursing and midwifery specialty framework for workforce regulation : Criteria development
King, Susan, Ogle, Kaye and Buthane, Elizabeth. (2010) Shaping an Australian nursing and midwifery specialty framework for workforce regulation : Criteria development. International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 25(4), pp. 330 - 349. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.997
Nurses' experience of adjusting to workplace violence : A theory of adaptation
Chapman, Rosemary, Styles, Irene, Perry, Laura and Combs, Shane. (2010) Nurses' experience of adjusting to workplace violence : A theory of adaptation. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 19(3), pp. 186 - 194. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00663.x
Examining the characteristics of workplace violence in one non-tertiary hospital
Chapman, Rosemary, Styles, Irene, Perry, Laura and Combs, Shane. (2010) Examining the characteristics of workplace violence in one non-tertiary hospital. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 19(3-4), pp. 479 - 488. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02952.x
Duly authorized officers' practices under mental health law in New Zealand: Are nurses meeting the requirements of the law?: Feature article
McKenna, Brian, Thom, Katey, O'Brien, Anthony John, Crene, Sally and Simpson, A.. (2009) Duly authorized officers' practices under mental health law in New Zealand: Are nurses meeting the requirements of the law?: Feature article. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 18(4), pp. 231 - 238. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00619.x
Consequences of workplace violence directed at nurses
Chapman, Rose, Perry, Laura, Styles, Irene and Combs, Shane. (2009) Consequences of workplace violence directed at nurses. British Journal of Nursing. 18(20), pp. 1256 - 1261.
Community treatment orders and competence to consent
Milne, Duncan, O'Brien, Anthony John and McKenna, Brian. (2009) Community treatment orders and competence to consent. Australasian Psychiatry. 17(4), pp. 273 - 278. https://doi.org/10.1080/10398560902721572
Compulsory community mental health treatment: Literature review
O'Brien, Anthony John, McKenna, Brian and Kydd, Robert R.. (2009) Compulsory community mental health treatment: Literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 46(9), pp. 1245 - 1255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.02.006
Evaluating nurses' knowledge and skills in the detection of child abuse in the Emergency Department
Keane, Carolyn and Chapman, Rosemary. (2008) Evaluating nurses' knowledge and skills in the detection of child abuse in the Emergency Department. International emergency nursing. 16(1), pp. 5 - 13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ienj.2007.11.006
Judging nursing practice: Implications of habeas corpus rulings for mental health nurses in New Zealand
Thom, Katey, O'Brien, Anthony John and McKenna, Brian. (2008) Judging nursing practice: Implications of habeas corpus rulings for mental health nurses in New Zealand. Psychiatry Psychology and Law. 15(1), pp. 131 - 139. https://doi.org/10.1080/13218710701879558
Return to nursing programmes: Justifications for a mental health specific course
McKenna, Brian, Thom, Katey and O'Brien, Anthony John. (2008) Return to nursing programmes: Justifications for a mental health specific course. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship. 5(1), pp. 1 - 16. https://doi.org/10.2202/1548-923X.1618
The unintended impact of the therapeutic intentions of the New Zealand Mental Health Review Tribunal? Therapeutic jurisprudence perspectives
Diesfeld, Kate and McKenna, Brian. (2007) The unintended impact of the therapeutic intentions of the New Zealand Mental Health Review Tribunal? Therapeutic jurisprudence perspectives. Journal of law and medicine. 14(4), pp. 566 - 574.
Concerns about the use of TASERs on people with mental illness in New Zealand
O'Brien, Anthony John and McKenna, Brian. (2007) Concerns about the use of TASERs on people with mental illness in New Zealand. Journal of Forensic Nursing. 3(2), pp. 89 - 92. https://doi.org/10.1097/01263942-200706000-00008
Outcome of patients rehabilitated through a New Zealand Forensic Psychiatry Service: A 7.5 year retrospective study
Simpson, Sandy, Simpson, A., Jones, Roland Morgan, Evans, Ceri G. and McKenna, Brian. (2006) Outcome of patients rehabilitated through a New Zealand Forensic Psychiatry Service: A 7.5 year retrospective study. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. 24(6), pp. 833 - 843. https://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.740
Mentally abnormal homicide in New Zealand as defined by legal and clinical criteria: A national study
Simpson, A., Skipworth, Jeremy J., McKenna, Brian, Moskowitz, Andrew K. and Barry-Walsh, Justin B.. (2006) Mentally abnormal homicide in New Zealand as defined by legal and clinical criteria: A national study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 40(9), pp. 804 - 809. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1614.2006.01887.x
The therapeutic intent of the New Zealand Mental Health Review Tribunal
Diesfeld, Kate and McKenna, Brian. (2006) The therapeutic intent of the New Zealand Mental Health Review Tribunal. Psychiatry Psychology and Law. 13(1), pp. 100 - 109. https://doi.org/10.1375/pplt.13.1.100
Best practice management strategies for mental health nurses during the clinical application of civil commitment: an overview
McKenna, Brian, Simpson, A. and Cloverdale, John H.. (2006) Best practice management strategies for mental health nurses during the clinical application of civil commitment: an overview. Contemporary Nurse. 21(1), pp. 62 - 70. https://doi.org/10.5172/conu.2006.21.1.62
Registered nurses as responsible clinicians under the New Zealand Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992
McKenna, Brian, O'Brien, Anthony John, Dal Din, Toni and Thom, Kate. (2006) Registered nurses as responsible clinicians under the New Zealand Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 15(2), pp. 128 - 134. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0349.2006.00412.x
The role of mental illness in homicide-suicide in New Zealand, 1991 - 2000
Moskowitz, Andrew K., Simpson, A., McKenna, Brian, Skipworth, Jeremy J. and Barry-Walsh, Justin B.. (2006) The role of mental illness in homicide-suicide in New Zealand, 1991 - 2000. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. 17(3), pp. 417 - 430. https://doi.org/10.1080/14789940600761410
Outpatient commitment and coercion in New Zealand: A matched comparison study
McKenna, Brian, Simpson, A. and Cloverdale, John H.. (2006) Outpatient commitment and coercion in New Zealand: A matched comparison study. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 29(2), pp. 145 - 158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2004.07.004
Gambling and problem gambling among recently sentenced women in New Zealand prisons
Abbott, Max W. and McKenna, Brian. (2005) Gambling and problem gambling among recently sentenced women in New Zealand prisons. Journal of Gambling Studies. 21(4), pp. 559 - 581. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-005-5563-5
Gambling and problem gambling among recently sentenced male prisoners in four New Zealand prisons
Abbott, Max W., McKenna, Brian and Giles, Lynne C.. (2005) Gambling and problem gambling among recently sentenced male prisoners in four New Zealand prisons. Journal of Gambling Studies. 21(4), pp. 537 - 558. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-005-5562-6
New nurses face endemic violence
McKenna, Brian, Poole, Suzette J., Smith, Naumai A. and Cloverdale, John H.. (2004) New nurses face endemic violence. Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand. 10(5), pp. 12 - 14.
Homicide and mental illness in New Zealand, 1970-2000
Simpson, A., McKenna, Brian, Moskowitz, Andrew K., Skipworth, Jeremy J., Barry-Walsh, Justin B. and Simpson, Sandy. (2004) Homicide and mental illness in New Zealand, 1970-2000. British Journal of Psychiatry. 185(NOV), pp. 394 - 398. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.185.5.394
Patients' perceptions of coercion on admission to forensic psychiatric hospital: A comparison study
McKenna, Brian, Simpson, A. and Cloverdale, John H.. (2003) Patients' perceptions of coercion on admission to forensic psychiatric hospital: A comparison study. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 26(4), pp. 355 - 372. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2527(03)00046-3
Horizontal violence: Experiences of Registered Nurses in their first year of practice
McKenna, Brian, Smith, Naumai A., Poole, Suzette J. and Cloverdale, John H.. (2003) Horizontal violence: Experiences of Registered Nurses in their first year of practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 42(1), pp. 90 - 96. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02583.x
Advanced 'prescribing' of nurses' emergency holding powers under New Zealand mental health legislation
Farrow, Tony L., McKenna, Brian and O'Brien, Anthony John. (2002) Advanced 'prescribing' of nurses' emergency holding powers under New Zealand mental health legislation. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 11(3), pp. 164 - 169.
Initiating committal proceedings 'just in case' with voluntary patients: a critique of nursing practice
Farrow, Tony L., McKenna, Brian and O'Brien, Anthony John. (2002) Initiating committal proceedings 'just in case' with voluntary patients: a critique of nursing practice. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand. 18(2), pp. 15 - 23.
Risk assessment of violence to others: time for action
McKenna, Brian. (2002) Risk assessment of violence to others: time for action. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand. 18(1), pp. 36 - 43.
An analysis of procedural justice during psychiatric hospital admission
McKenna, Brian, Simpson, A., Cloverdale, John H. and Laidlaw, Tannis M.. (2001) An analysis of procedural justice during psychiatric hospital admission. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 24(6), pp. 573 - 581. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2527(00)00069-8
Debating forensic mental health nursing
McKenna, Brian and Poole, Suzette J.. (2001) Debating forensic mental health nursing. Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand. 7(6), pp. 18 - 20.
What is the role of procedural justice in civil commitment?
McKenna, Brian, Simpson, A. and Cloverdale, John H.. (2000) What is the role of procedural justice in civil commitment? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 34(4), pp. 671 - 676. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1614.2000.00744.x
Implications for training of violent acts by patients against psychiatry registrars
Gale, Christopher K., Simpson, A., McKenna, Brian and Cloverdale, John H.. (2000) Implications for training of violent acts by patients against psychiatry registrars. Australasian Psychiatry. 8(4), pp. 345 - 348. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1665.2000.00289.x
Patient perception of coercion on admission to acute psychiatric services: The New Zealand experience
McKenna, Brian, Simpson, A. and Laidlaw, Tannis M.. (1999) Patient perception of coercion on admission to acute psychiatric services: The New Zealand experience. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 22(2), pp. 143 - 153. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2527(98)00039-9
To tell or not to tell?
McKenna, Brian. (1997) To tell or not to tell? Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand. 3(4), pp. 28 - 29.