Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy and self-focused compassion: Preliminary steps in the development of a therapeutic psychopharmacology of contemplative practices

Journal article


Kamboj, Sunjeev K., Kilford, Emma J., Minchin, Stephanie, Moss, Abigail, Lawn, Will, Das, Ravi K., Falconer, Caroline J., Gilbert, Paul, Curran, H. Valerie and Freeman, Tom P.. (2015) Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy and self-focused compassion: Preliminary steps in the development of a therapeutic psychopharmacology of contemplative practices. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 29(9), pp. 961 - 970. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881115587143
AuthorsKamboj, Sunjeev K., Kilford, Emma J., Minchin, Stephanie, Moss, Abigail, Lawn, Will, Das, Ravi K., Falconer, Caroline J., Gilbert, Paul, Curran, H. Valerie and Freeman, Tom P.
Abstract

3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) produces diverse pro-social effects. Cognitive training methods rooted in Eastern contemplative practices also produce these effects through the development of a compassionate mindset. Given this similarity, we propose that one potential mechanism of action of MDMA in psychotherapy is through enhancing effects on intrapersonal attitudes (i.e. pro-social attitudes towards the self). We provide a preliminary test of this idea. Recreational MDMA (ecstasy) users were tested on two occasions, having consumed or not consumed ecstasy. Self-critical and self-compassionate responses to self-threatening scenarios were assessed before (T1) and after (T2) ecstasy use (or non-use), and then after compassionate imagery (T3). Moderating roles of dispositional self-criticism and avoidant attachment were examined. Separately, compassionate imagery and ecstasy produced similar sociotropic effects, as well as increases in self-compassion and reductions in self-criticism. Higher attachment-related avoidance was associated with additive effects of compassionate imagery and ecstasy on self-compassion. Findings were in line with MDMA’s neuropharmacological profile, its phenomenological effects and its proposed adjunctive use in psychotherapy. However, although conditions were balanced, the experiment was non-blind and MDMA dose/purity was not determined. Controlled studies with pharmaceutically pure MDMA are still needed to test these effects rigorously.

KeywordsMDMA; compassion-focused therapy; compassion; psychotherapy; self-criticism
Year2015
JournalJournal of Psychopharmacology
Journal citation29 (9), pp. 961 - 970
PublisherSage Publications Ltd.
ISSN0269-8811
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881115587143
Scopus EID2-s2.0-84942085059
Page range961 - 970
Research GroupSchool of Philosophy
Publisher's version
File Access Level
Controlled
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
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