Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety among North Korean refugees: a meta-analysis

Journal article


Taylor, Benjamin Eric, Chekaluk, Eugene and Bennett, Joanne. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety among North Korean refugees: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Investigation. 14(5), pp. 550 - 561. https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2017.14.5.550
AuthorsTaylor, Benjamin Eric, Chekaluk, Eugene and Bennett, Joanne
Abstract

Objective
Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among North Korean refugees who have fled their country for economic, financial and humanitarian reasons. Co-morbid depression and anxiety are also common among North Korean refugees, due to the difficulties they have faced within their country and during their escape journey. Depression and anxiety complicate treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, and lead to poorer outcomes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a meta-analysis of studies investigating post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among North Korean refugees.
Methods
Selected articles were published in English, and included measures of post-traumatic stress, and/or depression and anxiety. 10 studies were included in the depression meta-analysis, and 6 in the anxiety meta-analysis.
Results
A random-effects model revealed strong, significant associations between post-traumatic stress and depression, r=0.63, 95% CI (0.51, 0.72), p<0.001, z=8.33, and anxiety, r=0.51, 95% CI (0.36, 0.63), p<0.001, z=6.07. The relationships between post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety were higher among adults and those with more than five years outside of North Korea.
Conclusion
Depression appears to be an important treatment focus for North Korean refugees with post-traumatic stress.

KeywordsNorth Korean refugees; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Anxiety; Depression
Year2017
JournalPsychiatry Investigation
Journal citation14 (5), pp. 550 - 561
PublisherKorean Neuropsychiatric Association
ISSN1738-3684
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2017.14.5.550
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85029770954
Open accessOpen access
Page range550 - 561
Publisher's version
License
Place of publicationRepublic of Korea
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