Salt intake and dietary sources of salt on weekdays and weekend days in Australian adults

Journal article


Nowson, Caryl, Lim, Karen, Land, Mary-Ann, Webster, Jacqui, Shaw, Jonathan E., Chalmers, John, Flood, Victoria, Woodward, Mark and Grimes, Carley A.. (2018). Salt intake and dietary sources of salt on weekdays and weekend days in Australian adults. Public Health Nutrition. 21(12), pp. 2174 - 2182. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017004104
AuthorsNowson, Caryl, Lim, Karen, Land, Mary-Ann, Webster, Jacqui, Shaw, Jonathan E., Chalmers, John, Flood, Victoria, Woodward, Mark and Grimes, Carley A.
Abstract

Objective To assess if there is a difference in salt intake (24 h urine collection and dietary recall) and dietary sources of salt (Na) on weekdays and weekend days. Design A cross-sectional study of adults who provided one 24 h urine collection and one telephone-administered 24 h dietary recall. Setting Community-dwelling adults living in the State of Victoria, Australia. Subjects Adults (n 598) who participated in a health survey (53·5 % women; mean age 57·1 (95 % CI 56·2, 58·1) years). Results Mean (95 % CI) salt intake (dietary recall) was 6·8 (6·6, 7·1) g/d and 24 h urinary salt excretion was 8·1 (7·8, 8·3) g/d. Mean dietary and 24 h urinary salt (age-adjusted) were 0·9 (0·1, 1·6) g/d (P=0·024) and 0·8 (0·3, 1·6) g/d (P=0·0017), respectively, higher at weekends compared with weekdays. There was an indication of a greater energy intake at weekends (+0·6 (0·02, 1·2) MJ/d, P=0·06), but no difference in Na density (weekday: 291 (279, 304) mg/MJ; weekend: 304 (281, 327) mg/MJ; P=0·360). Cereals/cereal products and dishes, meat, poultry, milk products and gravy/sauces accounted for 71 % of dietary Na. Conclusions Mean salt intake (24 h urine collection) was more than 60 % above the recommended level of 5 g salt/d and 8–14 % more salt was consumed at weekends than on weekdays. Substantial reductions in the Na content of staple foods, processed meat, sauces, mixed dishes (e.g. pasta), convenience and takeaway foods are required to achieve a significant consistent reduction in population salt intake throughout the week.

Keywordssalt; sodium; sodium chloride; diet; weekend; urinary sodium; Australia
Year2018
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Journal citation21 (12), pp. 2174 - 2182
PublisherCambridge University Press
ISSN1368-9800
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017004104
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85060101238
Page range2174 - 2182
Research GroupMary MacKillop Institute for Health Research
Publisher's version
File Access Level
Controlled
Grant IDNHMRC/1082924
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
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