The pain-related cognitive processes questionnaire: Development and validation

Journal article


Melissa Day, Charles Ward, Beverly E. Thorn, Cathryne Lang, Toby Newton-John, Dawn Ehde and Mark P. Jensen. (2018) The pain-related cognitive processes questionnaire: Development and validation. Pain Medicine. 19(2), pp. 269-283. https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnx010
AuthorsMelissa Day, Charles Ward, Beverly E. Thorn, Cathryne Lang, Toby Newton-John, Dawn Ehde and Mark P. Jensen
Abstract

Objective
Cognitive processes may be characterized as how individuals think, whereas cognitive content constitutes what individuals think. Both cognitive processes and cognitive content are theorized to play important roles in chronic pain adjustment, and treatments have been developed to target both. However, the evaluation of treatments that target cognitive processes is limited because extant measures do not satisfactorily separate cognitive process from cognitive content. The current study aimed to develop a self-report inventory of potentially adaptive and presumed maladaptive attentional processes that may occur when someone is experiencing pain.

Methods
Scales were derived from a large item pool by successively applying confirmatory factor analysis to item data from two undergraduate samples (N = 393 and 233).

Results
Items, which were generated to avoid confounding of cognitive content with cognitive processes, represented nine constructs: Suppression, Distraction, Enhancement, Dissociation, Reappraisal, Absorption, Rumination, Nonjudgment, and Acceptance. The resulting nine scales formed the Pain-Related Cognitive Process Questionnaire (PCPQ), and scale correlations produced four conceptually distinct composite scales: Pain Diversion, Pain Distancing, Pain Focus, and Pain Openness. Internal consistency reliabilities of the nine scales were adequate (α ≥ 0.70) to good, and the four composite scales had α values of 0.79 or higher. Correlations with pain-related criterion variables were generally consistent with putative constructs.

Conclusions
The developed PCPQ scales offer a comprehensive assessment of important cognitive processes specific to pain. Overall, the findings suggest that the PCPQ scales may prove useful for evaluating the role of pain-related cognitive processes in studies of chronic pain.

Keywordscognitive process; chronic pain; assessment
Year2018
JournalPain Medicine
Journal citation19 (2), pp. 269-283
PublisherOxford University Press
ISSN1526-2375
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnx010
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85050036071
Publisher's version
File Access Level
Controlled
Publication process dates
Deposited13 May 2021
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