Controversies in omega-3 efficacy and novel concepts for application

Journal article


Radcliffe, J. E., Thomas, J., Bramley, A. L., Kouris-Blazos, A., Radford, B. E., Scholey, A. B., Pipingas, A., Thomas, C. J. and Itsiopoulos, C.. (2016). Controversies in omega-3 efficacy and novel concepts for application. Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism. 5, pp. 11-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnim.2016.05.002
AuthorsRadcliffe, J. E., Thomas, J., Bramley, A. L., Kouris-Blazos, A., Radford, B. E., Scholey, A. B., Pipingas, A., Thomas, C. J. and Itsiopoulos, C.
Abstract

Interest in the cardioprotective effects of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3) was largely influenced by the low rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) amongst the Inuits of Greenland who consumed a high marine fat diet rich in LCn3s. This finding stimulated years of epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the cardioprotective effects of LCn3s, thought to be primarily mediated through anti-inflammatory (and anti-aggregatory) prostaglandins that protect the vascular wall from pro-inflammatory effects of metabolic stress precipitated by poor diet and lifestyle. Although the original hypothesis of the link between LCn3s and CVD protection was based on a high LCn3 containing diet (namely a high marine fat diet) the majority of clinical trials since have focussed on EPA and DHA supplementation, and results of repeated meta-analyses have not shown conclusive evidence in support of their beneficial health effects. In this review we focus on the controversies that surround the efficacy of LCn3s in cardiovascular and other chronic diseases and present emerging areas of research for novel applications. We will examine factors that can impact on the efficacy of LCn3s such as source (plant vs marine vs supplements (algal vs marine)), stability of product, dose, trial duration, ratio of EPA:DHA, and ratio of LCn6:LCn3 fatty acids in the diet.

KeywordsLCn3; dosage; omega-3 supplements; mental health; cognition; microbiome
Year2016
JournalJournal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism
Journal citation5, pp. 11-22
PublisherElsevier B.V.
ISSN2666-1497
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnim.2016.05.002
Scopus EID2-s2.0-84977085510
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range11-22
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online07 Jun 2016
Publication process dates
Accepted24 May 2016
Deposited11 Nov 2021
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