Epidemiology of injuries in Australian school level rugby union

Journal article


Leung, Felix, Smith, Melinda, Brown, Mark, Rahmann, Ann, Mendis, Dilani and Hides, Julie. (2017) Epidemiology of injuries in Australian school level rugby union. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 20(8), pp. 740 - 744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.03.006
AuthorsLeung, Felix, Smith, Melinda, Brown, Mark, Rahmann, Ann, Mendis, Dilani and Hides, Julie
Abstract

Objectives There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. There is a lack of large-scale injury surveillance data reported for school level rugbyplayers of different ages. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency and nature of injuries being sustained during an Australian school level rugby union season. Design Prospective observational study. Methods Injury surveillance was conducted on 3585 rugby players from all 8 schools participating in an interschool rugby competition in Queensland, Australia. Match injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the season using a ‘medical-attention’ injury definition for each age group from opens (17 and 18 year olds) through to year 5 teams (9–10 year olds). Results There were 332 injuries recorded over 14,029 player hours during the season. The overall rate of injury was 23.7/1000 player hours (95% CI, 21.2–26.3). The incidence of upper and lower limb injuries were 6.3 and 5.6 injuries/1000 player hours respectively (95% CI, 5.1–7.8 and 4.5–7.0). The incidence of suspected concussion injuries was 4.3/1000 player hours (95% CI, 3.6–5.5). Injuries differed across age groups and tackling was the most common mechanism of injury. Conclusions The injury patterns observed in this large sample of players could be used to guide injury prevention programs in school level rugby union. Injury prevention programs should include age appropriate interventions and focus on improving the techniques used during the contact phase of rugby.

Keywordsadolescent; concussion; sport injury; surveillance; youth
Year2017
JournalJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Journal citation20 (8), pp. 740 - 744
PublisherElsevier Australia
ISSN1440-2440
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.03.006
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85017154591
Page range740 - 744
Research GroupMary MacKillop Institute for Health Research
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
EditorsG. Waddington
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Yu, Doris, Lee, Diana, Thompson, David, Woo, Jean and Leung, E. (2010) Assessing self-care behaviour of heart failure patients : Cross-cultural adaptation of two heart failure self-care instruments. Hong Kong Medical Journal. 16(Suppl 3), pp. 13 - 16.
Consistency in size and asymmetry of the psoas major muscle among elite footballers
Stewart, Stephen, Stanton, Warren Robert, Wilson, Stephen and Hides, Julie Anne. (2010) Consistency in size and asymmetry of the psoas major muscle among elite footballers. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 44(16), pp. 1173 - 1177. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.058909
Being present in the face of existential threat : The role of trait mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to mortality salience
Niemiec, C, Brown, K, Kashdan, Todd, Cozzolino, P, Breen, W, Levesque-Bristol, C and Ryan, Richard. (2010) Being present in the face of existential threat : The role of trait mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to mortality salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 99(2), pp. 344 - 365. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019388
Vitalizing effects of being outdoors and in nature
Ryan, Richard, Weinstein, N, Bernstein, J, Brown, K, Mistretta, L and Gagne, M. (2010) Vitalizing effects of being outdoors and in nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 30(2), pp. 159 - 168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.10.009
Validity of real-time ultrasound imaging to measure anterior hip muscle size: A comparison with magnetic resonance imaging
Mendis, Dilani, Wilson, Stephen, Stanton, Warren and Hides, Julie. (2010) Validity of real-time ultrasound imaging to measure anterior hip muscle size: A comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 40(9), pp. 577 - 581. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2010.3286
A magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the transversus abdominins muscle during drawing-in of the abdominal wall in elite Australian football league players with and without low back pain
Hides, Julie Anne, Boughen, Carly, Stanton, Warren Robert, Strudwick, Mark and Wilson, Steve. (2010) A magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the transversus abdominins muscle during drawing-in of the abdominal wall in elite Australian football league players with and without low back pain. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 40(1), pp. 4 - 10. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2010.3177
Countermeasures against lumbar spine deconditioning in prolonged bed rest : resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration
Hides, Julie Anne, Belavy, Daniel, Armbrecht, Gabriele, Richardson, Carolyn, Felsenberg, Dieter and Gast, U. (2010) Countermeasures against lumbar spine deconditioning in prolonged bed rest : resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration. Journal of Applied Psychology. 109(6), pp. 1801 - 1811. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00707.2010
Retraining motor control of abdominal muscles among elite cricketers with low back pain
Hides, Julie Anne, Stanton, Warren Robert, Wilson, Stephen, Freke, Matt, McMahon, Shaun and Sims, K. (2010) Retraining motor control of abdominal muscles among elite cricketers with low back pain. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 20(6), pp. 834 - 842. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01019.x
Weekends, work, and well-being : Psychological need satisfactions and day of the week effects on mood, vitality, and physical symptoms
Ryan, Richard, Bernstein, J and Brown, K. (2010) Weekends, work, and well-being : Psychological need satisfactions and day of the week effects on mood, vitality, and physical symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 29(1), pp. 95 - 122. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2010.29.1.95
The reliability and validity of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (assist)
Hides, L., Cotton, Sue, Berger, G., Gleeson, John, O'Donnell, C., Proffitt, T., McGorry, Patrick and Lubman, Dan. (2009) The reliability and validity of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (assist). Addictive Behaviors. 34(10), pp. 821 - 825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.03.040
Different ways to balance the spine: Subtle changes in sagittal spinal curves affect regional muscle activity
Claus, Andrew, Hides, Julie, Moseley, G. Lorimer and Hodges, Paul. (2009) Different ways to balance the spine: Subtle changes in sagittal spinal curves affect regional muscle activity. Spine. 34(6), pp. 208 - 214. https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181908ead
The association between degenerative hip joint pathology and size of the gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles
Grimaldi, Alison, Richardson, Carolyn, Durbridge, Gail, Donnelly, William, Darnell, Ross and Hides, Julie Anne. (2009) The association between degenerative hip joint pathology and size of the gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles. Manual Therapy. 14(6), pp. 611 - 617. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2008.11.002
The effect of chronic low back pain on size and contraction of the lumbar multifidus muscle
Wallwork, Tracy, Stanton, Warren, Freke, Matt and Hides, Julie. (2009) The effect of chronic low back pain on size and contraction of the lumbar multifidus muscle. Manual Therapy. 14(5), pp. 496 - 500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2008.09.006
Effect of prolonged bed rest on the anterior hip muscles
Mendis, Dilani, Hides, Julie, Wilson, Stephen, Grimaldi, Alison, Belavy, Daniel, Stanton, Warren, Felsenberg, Dieter, Rittweger, Jorn and Richardson, Carolyn A.. (2009) Effect of prolonged bed rest on the anterior hip muscles. Gait & Posture. 30(4), pp. 533 - 537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.08.002
The association between degenerative hip joint pathology and size of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and piriformis muscles
Grimaldi, Alison, Richardson, Carolyn, Stanton, Warren Robert, Durbridge, Gail, Donnelly, William and Hides, Julie Anne. (2009) The association between degenerative hip joint pathology and size of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and piriformis muscles. Manual Therapy. 14(6), pp. 605 - 610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2009.07.004
A specific inpatient aquatic physiotherapy program improves strength after total hip or knee replacement: A randomised controlled trial
Rahmann, Ann Elizabeth, Brauer, Sandra G. and Nitz, Jennifer C.. (2009) A specific inpatient aquatic physiotherapy program improves strength after total hip or knee replacement: A randomised controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 90(5), pp. 745 - 755. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2008.12.011
Altered response of the anterolateral abdominal muscles to stimulated weight-bearing in subjects with low back pain
Hides, Julie, Belavy, Daniel, Cassar, Lana, Willia, Michelle, Wilson, Stephen and Richardson, Carolyn A.. (2009) Altered response of the anterolateral abdominal muscles to stimulated weight-bearing in subjects with low back pain. European Spine Journal. 18(3), pp. 410 - 418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-008-0827-2
Is 'ideal' sitting posture real?: Measurement of spinal curves in four sitting postures
Claus, Andrew, Hides, Julie, Moseley, G. Lorimer and Hodges, Paul. (2009) Is 'ideal' sitting posture real?: Measurement of spinal curves in four sitting postures. Manual Therapy. 14(4), pp. 404 - 408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2008.06.001
MRI study of the size, symmetry and function of the trunk muscles among elite cricketers with and without low back pain
Hides, Julie, Stanton, Warren, Freke, Matt, Wilson, Stephen, McMahon, Shaun and Richardson, Carolyn A.. (2008) MRI study of the size, symmetry and function of the trunk muscles among elite cricketers with and without low back pain. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 42(10), pp. 809 - 813. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.044024
Sitting versus standing: Does the intradiscal pressure cause disc degeneration or low back pain?
Claus, Andrew, Hides, Julie, Moseley, G. Lorimer and Hodges, Paul. (2008) Sitting versus standing: Does the intradiscal pressure cause disc degeneration or low back pain? Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 18(4), pp. 550 - 558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2006.10.011
Resistive simulated weightbearing exercise with whole body vibration reduces lumbar spine deconditioning in bed-res
Belavy, Daniel, Hides, Julie, Wilson, Stephen, Stanton, Warren, Dimeo, Fernando, Rittweger, Jorn, Felsenberg, Dieter and Richardson, Carolyn A.. (2008) Resistive simulated weightbearing exercise with whole body vibration reduces lumbar spine deconditioning in bed-res. Spine. 33(5), pp. 121 - 131. https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181657f98
Effect of stabilization training on multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain
Hides, Julie, Stanton, Warren, McMahon, Shaun, Si, K. and Richardson, Carolyn A.. (2008) Effect of stabilization training on multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 38(3), pp. 101 - 108. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2008.2658
Multifidus size and symmetry among chronic IBP and healthy asymptomatic subjects
Hides, Julie, Gilmore, Craig, Stanton, Warren and Bohlscheid, Emma. (2008) Multifidus size and symmetry among chronic IBP and healthy asymptomatic subjects. Manual Therapy. 13(1), pp. 43 - 49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2006.07.017
Assessment of abdominal muscle function during a simulated unilateral weigh bearing task using ultrasound imaging
Hides, Julie, Wong, Ian, Wilson, Stephen, Belavy, Daniel and Richardson, Carolyn A.. (2007) Assessment of abdominal muscle function during a simulated unilateral weigh bearing task using ultrasound imaging. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 37(8), pp. 467 - 471. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2007.2417
Ultrasound imaging assessment of abdominal muscle function during drawing-in of the abdominal wall: an intrarater reliability study
Richardson, Carolyn A., Miokovic, Tanja, Belavy, Daniel, Stanton, Warren and Hides, Julie. (2007) Ultrasound imaging assessment of abdominal muscle function during drawing-in of the abdominal wall: an intrarater reliability study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 37(8), pp. 480 - 486. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2007.2416
Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the posterior paraspinal muscles
Stokes, Maria, Hides, Julie, Elliott, James, Kiesel, Kyle and Hodges, Paul. (2007) Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the posterior paraspinal muscles. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 37(10), pp. 581 - 595. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2007.2599
Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles
Teyhen, Deydre, Gill, Norman, Whitake, Jackie, Henry, Sharon, Hides, Julie and Hodges, Paul. (2007) Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 37(8), pp. 450 - 466. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2007.2558
Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of trunk muscles during prolonged bed rest
Hides, Julie, Belavy, Daniel, Stanton, Warren, Wilson, Stephen, Rittweger, Jorn, Felsenberg, Dieter and Richardson, Carolyn A.. (2007) Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of trunk muscles during prolonged bed rest. Spine. 32(15), pp. 1687 - 1692. https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e318074c386
Intrarater and interrater reliability of assessment of lumbar multifidus thickness using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging
Wallwork, Tracy, Hides, Julie and Stanton, Warren. (2007) Intrarater and interrater reliability of assessment of lumbar multifidus thickness using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 37(10), pp. 608 - 612. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2007.2418
An MRI investigation into the function of the transversus abdominis muscle during "drawing-in" of the abdominal wall
Hides, Julie, Wilson, Stephen, Stanton, Warren, McMahon, Shaun, Keto, Heidi, McMahon, Catherine, Bryant, Mary and Richardson, Carolyn A.. (2006) An MRI investigation into the function of the transversus abdominis muscle during "drawing-in" of the abdominal wall. Spine. 31(6), pp. 175 - 178. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000202740.86338.df
The use of real-time ultrasound imaging for biofeedback of lumbar multifidus muscle contraction in healthy subjects
Van, Khai, Hides, Julie and Richardson, Carolyn A.. (2006) The use of real-time ultrasound imaging for biofeedback of lumbar multifidus muscle contraction in healthy subjects. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 36(12), pp. 920 - 925. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2006.2304
Low back pain patients demonstrate increased hip extensor muscle activity during standardized submaximal rotational efforts
Pirouzi, Soraya, Hides, Julie, Richardson, Carolyn A., Darnell, Ross and Toppenberg, Rowena. (2006) Low back pain patients demonstrate increased hip extensor muscle activity during standardized submaximal rotational efforts. Spine. 31(26), pp. 999 - 1005. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000250076.74366.9d
MRI measures of the lumbo-pelvic muscles in bedrest and follow-up: Implications for exercise countermeasures in microgravity.
Richardson, Carolyn A., Hides, Julie, Wilson, Stephen, Belavy, Daniel, Stanton, Warren, McCook, D, Elmann-Larsen, B, Rittweger, Jorn and Felsenberg, Dieter. (2005) MRI measures of the lumbo-pelvic muscles in bedrest and follow-up: Implications for exercise countermeasures in microgravity. Journal of Gravitational Physiology. 12(1), pp. 117 - 118.
Long-term overactivity in the abdominal oblique muscle after 8 weeks bed-rest - possible implications for musculoskeletal health
Belavy, Daniel, Richardson, Carolyn A., Wilson, Stephen, Darnell, Ross, Hides, Julie, Toppenberg, Rowena, Elmann-Larsen, B, Rittweger, Jorn and Felsenberg, Dieter. (2005) Long-term overactivity in the abdominal oblique muscle after 8 weeks bed-rest - possible implications for musculoskeletal health. Journal of Gravitational Physiology. 12(1), pp. 117 - 118.