Is the meaning of ethical leadership constant across cultures? A test of cross-cultural measurement invariance

Journal article


Ahmad, Saima, Fazal-e-Hasan, Syed Muhammad and Kaleem, Ahmad. (2020) Is the meaning of ethical leadership constant across cultures? A test of cross-cultural measurement invariance. International Journal of Manpower. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-02-2019-0079
AuthorsAhmad, Saima, Fazal-e-Hasan, Syed Muhammad and Kaleem, Ahmad
Abstract

Purpose: This paper empirically addresses the question of whether the meaning of ethical leadership is constant across cultures. Drawing on the implicit leadership theory (ILT), we examine whether people in Australia and Pakistan respond to perceived ethical leadership in a similar or different manner. By comparing employees' interpretation of the key attributes associated with ethical leadership, we advance construct-specific knowledge in cross-national contexts. Design/methodology/approach: Since meaningful cross-country comparisons of a research construct require an equivalent measurement of it, we examine the issue of cross-cultural measurement invariance of ethical leadership. Specifically, this study explores the configural, metric and scalar invariance of ethical leadership by obtaining data from matched international samples. Findings: The findings broadly support cross-cultural generalisability of the construct's meaning and cross-cultural transferability of the ethical leadership scale (ELS). They suggest that measures of ethical leadership constructs should be used in different cultures with caution because significant differences may exist at the item level. Originality/value: This study provides cross-cultural endorsement to the construal of ethical leadership by presenting evidence that supports convergence in the construct's meaning across Eastern and Western cultures. The study has enhanced the construct validity of ethical leadership through the use of the refined multiple-sample analytical approach. Previous studies have assumed that measures of ethical leadership are invariant across various contexts. However, this is the first study to employ a robust methodological technique (metric and path invariance) that demonstrates the significant difference between each item and path and generalises the validity of ethical leadership construct and its measures by using international samples.

KeywordsPakistan; Australia; ethical leadership; cross-cultural research; measurement invariance
Year2020
JournalInternational Journal of Manpower
PublisherEmerald Group Publishing Ltd
ISSN0143-7720
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-02-2019-0079
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85084223326
Page range1 - 18
Research GroupPeter Faber Business School
Place of publicationUnited Kingdom
Permalink -

https://acuresearchbank.acu.edu.au/item/8qq10/is-the-meaning-of-ethical-leadership-constant-across-cultures-a-test-of-cross-cultural-measurement-invariance

Restricted files

Publisher's version

  • 6
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month
These values are for the period from 19th October 2020, when this repository was created.

Export as

Related outputs

Explaining the impact of consumer religiosity, perceived risk and moral potency on purchase intentions
Mortimer, Gary, Fazal-e-Hasan, Syed Muhammad, Grimmer, Martin and Grimmer, Louise. (2020) Explaining the impact of consumer religiosity, perceived risk and moral potency on purchase intentions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 55, pp. 1 - 13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2020.102115
Examining the antecedents and consequences of perceived shopping value through smart retail technology
Adapa, Sujana, Fazal-e-Hasan, Syed Muhammad, Makam, Sathyaprakash Balaji, Azeem, Muhammad Masood and Mortimer, Gary. (2020) Examining the antecedents and consequences of perceived shopping value through smart retail technology. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 52, pp. 1 - 11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.101901
The role of brand innovativeness and customer hope in developing online repurchase intentions
Fazal-e-Hasan, Muhammad, Ahmadi, Hormoz, Kelly, Louise and Lings, Ian. (2019) The role of brand innovativeness and customer hope in developing online repurchase intentions. Journal of Brand Management. 26(2), pp. 85 - 89. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-018-0122-4
Examining customer-oriented positive deviance intentions of retail employees
Fazal-e-Hasan, Muhammad, Mortimer, Gary, Lings, Ian N. and Drennan, Judy. (2019) Examining customer-oriented positive deviance intentions of retail employees. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management. 47(8), pp. 836 - 854. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-10-2018-0235
Managing relationships: Insights from a student gratitude model
Fazal-e-Hasan, Syed Muhammad, Mortimer, Gary, Lings, Ian, Sekhon, Harjit and Howell, Kerry. (2019) Managing relationships: Insights from a student gratitude model. Research in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-019-09576-6
The role of effective communication and trustworthiness in determining guests’ loyalty
Kharouf, Husni, Sekhon, Harjit, Fazal-e-Hasan, Syed Muhammad, Hickman, Ellie and Mortimer, Gary. (2019) The role of effective communication and trustworthiness in determining guests’ loyalty. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management. 28(2), pp. 240 - 262. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2018.1505574
Examining the role of consumer hope in explaining the impact of perceived brand value on customer–brand relationship outcomes in an online retailing environment
Fazal-e-Hasan, Muhammad, Ahmadi, Hormoz, Mortimer, Gary, Grimmer, Martin and Kelly, Louise. (2018) Examining the role of consumer hope in explaining the impact of perceived brand value on customer–brand relationship outcomes in an online retailing environment. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 41, pp. 101 - 111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.12.004
Train the child and teach the adult: Developing intervention strategies for increasing seafood consumption
Birch, Dawn, David, Dean, Fazal-e-Hasan, Syed Muhammad and Lawley, Meredith. (2018) Train the child and teach the adult: Developing intervention strategies for increasing seafood consumption. Journal of Consumer Behaviour. 17(4), pp. 426 - 438. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1719
Measuring the experience of off-price fashion shopping: scale development and validation "The role of effective communication and trustworthiness in determining guests’ loyalty"
Mortimer, Gary, Fazal-e-Hasan, Syed Muhammad, O'Donnell, Kathleen A. and Strebel, Judi. (2018) Measuring the experience of off-price fashion shopping: scale development and validation "The role of effective communication and trustworthiness in determining guests’ loyalty". Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management. 22(4), pp. 454 - 475. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFMM-01-2018-0005
Development and validation of the Self-Gifting Consumer Behaviour scale
Mortimer, Gary, Bagoure, Ursula and Fazal-e-Hasan, Muhammad. (2015) Development and validation of the Self-Gifting Consumer Behaviour scale. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An international research review. 14(3), pp. 165 - 179. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1506