2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease : A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines
Arnett, Donna K., Blumenthal, Roger S., Albert, Michelle A., Buroker, Andrew B., Goldberger, Zachary D., Hahn, Ellen G., Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison, Khera, Amit, Lloyd-Jones, Donald M., McEvoy, J. William, Michos, Erin D., Miedema, Michael D., Muñoz, Daniel, Smith, Sidney C., Virani, Salim S., Williams, Kim A., Yeboah, Joseph, Ziaeian, Boback, O'Gara, Patrick T., ... Wijeysundera, Duminda N.. (2019). 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease : A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 140(11), pp. e596-e646. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000678
|Authors||Arnett, Donna K., Blumenthal, Roger S., Albert, Michelle A., Buroker, Andrew B., Goldberger, Zachary D., Hahn, Ellen G., Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison, Khera, Amit, Lloyd-Jones, Donald M., McEvoy, J. William, Michos, Erin D., Miedema, Michael D., Muñoz, Daniel, Smith, Sidney C., Virani, Salim S., Williams, Kim A., Yeboah, Joseph, Ziaeian, Boback, O'Gara, Patrick T., Beckman, Joshua A., Levine, Glenn N., Al-Khatib, Sana M., Birtcher, Kim K., Cigarroa, Joaquin E., Deswal, Anita, Fleisher, Lee A., Gentile, Frederico, Hlatky, Mark A., Ikonomidis, John, Joglar, José A., Mauri, Laura, Piano, Mariann R., Riegel, Barbara and Wijeysundera, Duminda N.|
[Preamble] Since 1980, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) have translated scientific evidence into clinical practice guidelines with recommendations to improve cardiovascular health. These guidelines, which are based on systematic methods to evaluate and classify evidence, provide a foundation for the delivery of quality cardiovascular care. The ACC and AHA sponsor the development and publication of clinical practice guidelines without commercial support, and members volunteer their time to the writing and review efforts.
Clinical practice guidelines provide recommendations applicable to patients with or at risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The focus is on medical practice in the United States, but these guidelines are relevant to patients throughout the world. Although guidelines may be used to inform regulatory or payer decisions, the goals are to improve quality of care and align with patients’ interests. Guidelines are intended to define practices meeting the needs of patients in most but not all circumstances and should not replace clinical judgment.
Recommendations for guideline-directed management and therapy, which encompasses clinical evaluation, diagnostic testing, and both pharmacological and procedural treatments, are effective only when adopted by both practitioners and patients. Adherence to recommendations can be enhanced by shared decision-making between clinicians and patients, with patient engagement in selecting interventions on the basis of individual values, preferences, and associated conditions and comorbidities.
The ACC/AHA Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines strives to ensure that the guideline writing committee includes requisite expertise and is representative of the broader medical community by selecting experts from a broad array of backgrounds, representing different geographic regions, sexes, races, ethnicities, intellectual perspectives/biases, and scopes of clinical practice. The ACC and AHA have rigorous policies and methods to ensure that documents are developed without bias or improper influence. The complete policy on relationships with industry and other entities (RWI) can be found online (https://www.acc.org/guidelines/about-guidelines-and-clinical-documen...).
Beginning in 2017, numerous modifications to the guidelines have been and continue to be implemented to make guidelines shorter and enhance “user friendliness.” Guidelines are written and presented in a modular knowledge chunk format, in which each chunk includes a table of recommendations, a brief synopsis, recommendation-specific supportive text and, when appropriate, flow diagrams or additional tables. Hyperlinked references are provided for each modular knowledge chunk to facilitate quick access and review. More structured guidelines—including word limits (“targets”) and a web guideline supplement for useful but noncritical tables and figures—are 2 such changes. This Preamble is an abbreviated version, with the detailed version available online (https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/suppl/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000678).
|Keywords||AHA Scientific Statements; guidelines; antihypertensive; agents; aspirin; atherosclerosis; atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; atrial fibrillation; behavior modification; behavior therapy; blood cholesterol; blood pressure; body mass index; cardiovascular team-based care; cardiovascular; cardiovascular disease; cholesterol; chronic kidney disease; coronary artery calcium score; coronary disease; coronary heart disease; cost; diet; dietary patterns; dietary fats; dietary sodium; dyslipidemia; e-cigarettes; exercise; healthcare disparities; health services accessibility; heart failure; hypertension; LDL cholesterol; diabetes mellitus; lifestyle; lipids; measurement; myocardial infarction; nicotine; nonpharmacological treatment; nutrition; physical activity; prejudice; primary prevention; psychosocial deprivation; public health; quality indicators; quality measurement; risk assessment; risk-enhancing factors; risk factors; risk reduction; risk reduction discussion; risk treatment discussion; secondhand smoke; sleep; smoking; smoking cessation; social determinants of health; socioeconomic factors; statin therapy; systems of care; tobacco; tobacco smoke pollution; treatment adherence; treatment outcomes; type 2 diabetes mellitus; waist circumference; weight loss|
|Journal citation||140 (11), pp. e596-e646|
|Publisher||American Heart Association|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000678|
|Open access||Published as green open access|
|Author's accepted manuscript|
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|Online||17 Mar 2019|
|Publication process dates|
|Deposited||30 Apr 2021|
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