Vitamin D supplementation and exercise for improving physical function, body composition and metabolic health in overweight or obese older adults with vitamin D deficiency : A pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Journal article


Mesinovic, Jakub, Rodriguez, Alexander J., Cervo, Mavil May, Gandham, Anoohya, Xu, Cecilia L. H., Glavas, Costas, de Courten, Barbora, Zengin, Ayse, Ebeling, Peter R. and Scott, David. (2023). Vitamin D supplementation and exercise for improving physical function, body composition and metabolic health in overweight or obese older adults with vitamin D deficiency : A pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Journal of Nutrition. 62(2), pp. 951-964. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-022-03038-z
AuthorsMesinovic, Jakub, Rodriguez, Alexander J., Cervo, Mavil May, Gandham, Anoohya, Xu, Cecilia L. H., Glavas, Costas, de Courten, Barbora, Zengin, Ayse, Ebeling, Peter R. and Scott, David
Abstract

Purpose
Vitamin D supplementation may have non-skeletal health benefits and enhance exercise responsiveness, particularly in those with low vitamin D levels. We determined whether, compared with placebo, vitamin D supplementation taken prior to and during a 12-week exercise program improves physical function, body composition or metabolic health, in overweight and obese older adults with vitamin D deficiency.

Methods
Fifty overweight or obese older adults (mean ± SD age: 60 ± 6 years; BMI 30.6 ± 5.7 kg/m2) with vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] < 50 nmol/L) were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either vitamin D3 (4000 IU/day) or matching placebo for 24 weeks. Between weeks 12 and 24, all participants completed multi-modal exercise three days per week while continuing with vitamin D/placebo. Mean changes in physical function (primary outcome: gait speed), body composition and biochemical parameters at weeks 12 and 24 were compared between groups.

Results
Vitamin D supplementation, with or without exercise, had no effect on gait speed. From baseline to week 12, vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D levels (placebo: 2.5 ± 14.7 nmol/L; treatment: 43.4 ± 18.4 nmol/L; P < 0.001) and reduced stair climb times (placebo: 0.3 ± 1.0 s; treatment: − 0.2 ± 1.0 s; P = 0.046). From 12 to 24 weeks, vitamin D supplementation combined with exercise decreased waist circumference (placebo: 1.3 ± 7.3 cm; treatment: − 3.0 ± 6.1 cm; P = 0.02) and waist-to-hip ratio (placebo: 0.01 ± 0.05; treatment: − 0.03 ± 0.05; P = 0.01) relative to placebo. Vitamin D supplementation, with or without exercise, had no effect on other physical function, body composition or metabolic health outcomes.

Conclusion
Vitamin D supplementation had no effect on most physical function, body composition or metabolic health parameters when taken alone, or during exercise, in overweight or obese older adults with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D-related improvements in stair climb times and waist circumference suggest that future trials should explore the effects of vitamin D on muscle power, and its effects on body composition when combined with exercise, in populations with moderate or severe vitamin D deficiency.

Keywordsvitamin D; exercise; physical function; body composition; metabolic health
Year2023
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Journal citation62 (2), pp. 951-964
PublisherSpringer
ISSN1436-6207
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-022-03038-z
PubMed ID36333495
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85141436570
PubMed Central IDPMC9638202
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Page range951-964
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online04 Nov 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted20 Oct 2022
Deposited11 Jan 2023
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https://acuresearchbank.acu.edu.au/item/8y97z/vitamin-d-supplementation-and-exercise-for-improving-physical-function-body-composition-and-metabolic-health-in-overweight-or-obese-older-adults-with-vitamin-d-deficiency-a-pilot-randomized-double

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