Situational factors shape moral judgements in the trolley dilemma in Eastern, Southern and Western countries in a culturally diverse sample

Journal article


Bago, Bence, Kovacs, Marton, Protzko, John, Nagy, Tamas, Kekecs, Zoltan, Pálfi, Bence, Adamkovič, Matúš, Adamus, Sylwia, Albalooshi, Sumaya, Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan, Alfian, Ilham N., Alper, Sinan, Alvarez-Solas, Sara, Alves, Sara G., Amaya, Santiago, Andresen, Pia K., Anjum, Gulnaz, Ansari, Daniel, Arriaga, Patricia, ... Aczel, Balazs. (2022). Situational factors shape moral judgements in the trolley dilemma in Eastern, Southern and Western countries in a culturally diverse sample. Nature Human Behaviour. 6, pp. 880-895. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-022-01319-5
AuthorsBago, Bence, Kovacs, Marton, Protzko, John, Nagy, Tamas, Kekecs, Zoltan, Pálfi, Bence, Adamkovič, Matúš, Adamus, Sylwia, Albalooshi, Sumaya, Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan, Alfian, Ilham N., Alper, Sinan, Alvarez-Solas, Sara, Alves, Sara G., Amaya, Santiago, Andresen, Pia K., Anjum, Gulnaz, Ansari, Daniel, Arriaga, Patricia, Aruta, John Jamir Benzon R., Arvanitis, Alexios, Babinčák, Peter, Barzykowski, Krystian, Bashour, Bana, Baskin, Ernest, Batalha, Luisa, Batres, Carlota, Bavolar, Jozef, Bayrak, Fatih, Becker, Benjamin, Becker, Maja, Belaus, Anabel, Bialek, Michal, Bilancini, Ennio, Boller, Daniel, Boncinelli, Leonardo, Boudesseul, Jordane, Brown, Benjamin T., Buchanan, Erin M., Butt, Muhammad Mussaffa, Calvillo, Dustin P., Carnes, Nate C., Celniker, Jared B., Chartier, Christopher R., Chopik, William J., Chotikavan, Poom, Chuan-Peng, Hu, Clancy, Rockwell F., Çoker, Ogeday, Correia, Rita C., Adoric, Vera Cubela, Cubillas, Carmelo P., Czoschke, Stefan, Daryani, Yalda, de Grefte, Job A. M., de Vries, Wieteke C., Burak, Elif G. Demirag, Dias, Carina, Dixson, Barnaby James Wyld, Du, Xinkai, Dumančić, Francesca, Dumbravă, Andrei, Dutra, Natalia B., Enachescu, Janina, Esteban-Serna, Celia, Eudave, Luis, Evans, Thomas R., Feldman, Gilad, Felisberti, Fatima M., Fiedler, Susann, Findor, Andrej, Fleischmann, Alexandra, Foroni, Francesco, Francová, Radka, Frank, Darius-Aurel, Fu, Cynthia H. Y., Gao, Shan, Ghasemi, Omid, Ghazi-Noori, Ali-Reza, Ghossainy, Maliki E., Giammusso, Isabella, Gill, Tripat, Gjoneska, Biljana, Gollwitzer, Mario, Graton, Aurélien, Grinberg, Maurice, Groyecka-Bernard, Agata, Harris, Elizabeth A., Hartanto, Andree, Hassan, Widad A. N. M., Hatami, Javad, Heimark, Katrina R., Hidding, Jasper J. J., Hristova, Evgeniya, Hruška, Matej, Hudson, Charlotte A., Huskey, Richard, Ikeda, Ayumi, Inbar, Yoel, Ingram, Gordon P. D., Isler, Ozan, Isloi, Chris, Iyer, Aishwarya, Jaeger, Bastian, Janssen, Steve M. J., Jimenez-Leal, William, Jokić, Biljana, Kačmár, Pavol, Kadreva, Veselina Hristova, Kaminski, Gwenael, Karimi-Malekabadi, Farzan, Kasper, Arno T. A., Kendrick, Keith M., Kennedy, Bradley J., Kocalar, Halil Emre, Kodapanakkal, Rabia I., Kowal, Marta, Kruse, Elliott, Kučerová, Lenka, Kühberger, Anton, Kuzminska, Anna O., Lalot, Fanny, Lamm, Claus, Lammers, Joris, Lange, Elke B., Lantian, Anthony, Lau, Ivy Y.-M., Lazarevic, Ljiljana B., Leliveld, Marijke C., Lenz, Jennifer N., Levitan, Carmel A., Lewis, Savannah, Li, Manyu, Li, Yansong, Li, Haozheng, Lima, Tiago J. S., Lins, Samuel, Liuzza, Marco Tullio, Lopes, Paula, Lu, Jackson G., Lynds, Trent, Máčel, Martin, Mackinnon, Sean P., Maganti, Madhavilatha, Magraw-Mickelson, Zoe, Magson, Leon F., Manley, Harry, Marcu, Gabriela Mariana, Seršić, Darja Masli, Matibag, Celine-Justine, Mattiassi, Alan D. A., Mazidi, Mahdi, McFall, Joseph P., McLatchie, Neil, Mensink, Michael C., Miketta, Lena, Milfont, Taciano L., Mirisola, Alberto, Misiak, Michal, Mitkidis, Panagiotis, Moeini-Jazani, Mehrad, Monajem, Arash, Moreau, David, Musser, Erica, Narhetali, Erita, Ochoa, Danielle, Olsen, Jerome, Owsley, Nicholas C., Özdoğru, Asil Ali, Panning, Miriam, Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta, Parashar, Neha, Pärnamets, Philip, Paruzel-Czachura, Mariola, Parzuchowski, Michal, Paterlini, Julia V., Pavlacic, Jeffrey M., Peker, Mehmet, Peters, Kim, Piatnitckaia, Liudmila, Pinto, Isabel R., Policarpio, Monica Renee, Pop-Jordanova, Nada, Pratama, Annas J., Primbs, Maximilian A., Pronizius, Ekaterina, Purić, Danka, Puvia, Elisa, Qamari, Vahid, Qian, Kun, Quiamzade, Alain, Ráczová, Beáta, Reinero, Diego A., Reips, Ulf-Dietrich, Reyna, Cecilia, Reynolds, Kimberly, Ribeiro, Matheus Fernando Felix, Röer, Jan Philipp, Ross, Robert M., Roussos, Petros, Ruiz-Dodobara, Fernando, Ruiz-Fernández, Susana, Rutjens, Bastiaan T., Rybus, Katarzyna, Samekin, Adil, Santos, Anabela Caetano, Say, Nicolas, Schild, Christoph, Schmidt, Kathleen, Ścigała, Karolina A., Sharifian, Mohammad, Shi, Jiaxin, Shi, Yaoxi, Sievers, Erin, Sirota, Miroslav, Slipenkyj, Michael, Solak, Çağlar, Sorokowska, Agnieszka, Sorokowski, Piotr, Söylemez, Sinem, Steffens, Niklas K., Stephen, Ian D., Sternisko, Anni, Stevens-Wilson, Laura, Stewart, Suzanne L. K., Stieger, Stefan, Storage, Daniel, Strube, Justine, Susa, Kyle J., Szekely-Copîndean, Raluca D., Szostak, Natalia M., Takwin, Bagus, Tatachari, Srinivasan, Thomas, Andrew G., Tiede, Kevin E., Tiong, Lucas E., Tonković, Mirjana, Trémolière, Bastien, Tunstead, Lauren V., Türkan, Belgüzar N., Twardawski, Mathias, Vadillo, Miguel A., Vally, Zahir, Vaughn, Leigh Ann, Verschuere, Bruno, Vlašiček, Denis, Voracek, Martin, Vranka, Marek, Wang, Shuzhen, West, Skye-Loren, Whyte, Stephen, Wilton, Leigh S., Wlodarczyk, Anna, Wu, Xue, Xin, Fei, Yadanar, Su, Yama, Hiroshi, Yamada, Yuki, Yilmaz, Onurcan, Yoon, Sangsuk, Young, Danielle M., Zakharov, Ilya, Zein, Rizqy A., Zettler, Ingo, Žeželj, Iris L., Zhang, Don C., Zhang, Jin, Zheng, Xiaoxiao, Hoekstra, Rink and Aczel, Balazs
Abstract

The study of moral judgements often centres on moral dilemmas in which options consistent with deontological perspectives (that is, emphasizing rules, individual rights and duties) are in conflict with options consistent with utilitarian judgements (that is, following the greater good based on consequences). Greene et al. (2009) showed that psychological and situational factors (for example, the intent of the agent or the presence of physical contact between the agent and the victim) can play an important role in moral dilemma judgements (for example, the trolley problem). Our knowledge is limited concerning both the universality of these effects outside the United States and the impact of culture on the situational and psychological factors affecting moral judgements. Thus, we empirically tested the universality of the effects of intent and personal force on moral dilemma judgements by replicating the experiments of Greene et al. in 45 countries from all inhabited continents. We found that personal force and its interaction with intention exert influence on moral judgements in the US and Western cultural clusters, replicating and expanding the original findings. Moreover, the personal force effect was present in all cultural clusters, suggesting it is culturally universal. The evidence for the cultural universality of the interaction effect was inconclusive in the Eastern and Southern cultural clusters (depending on exclusion criteria). We found no strong association between collectivism/individualism and moral dilemma judgements.

Year2022
JournalNature Human Behaviour
Journal citation6, pp. 880-895
PublisherNature Publishing Group
ISSN2397-3374
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-022-01319-5
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85128090286
Page range880-895
FunderComunidad de Madrid
American Enterprise Institute (AEI)
European Regional Development Fund (FEDER)
National Science Centre, Poland
Aarhus University Research Foundation (AUFF)
Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), France
Australian Research Council (ARC)
Coordination for the Improvement in Higher Education Personnel (CAPES)
Carlsberg Foundation
Independent Research Fund Denmark
German Research Foundation
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT), Chilean Government
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)
National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)
Key Technological Projects of Guangdong Province
National Science Centre, Poland
National Foundation for Science and Technology, Portugal
Research Projects of National Relevance (PRIN), Italian Ministry of Education and Research
Foundation for Polish Science (START)
Slovak Research and Development Agency
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life, and Welfare
The Project of Philosophy and Social Science Research in Colleges and Universities, Jiangsu Province
Publisher's version
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online14 Apr 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted14 Feb 2022
Deposited24 Oct 2022
ARC Funded ResearchThis output has been funded, wholly or partially, under the Australian Research Council Act 2001
Grant ID2016-T1/SOC-1395
2020-5A/SOC-19723
PSI2017-85159-P
2017/01/X/HS6/01332
AUFF-E-2019-9-4
ANR-17-EURE-0010
DP180102384
88887.364180/2019-00
CF16-0444
7024-00057B
EXC 2126/1–390838866
2015/19/D/HS6/00641
2019/35/B/HS6/0052
11190980
FOR-2150
LA 3566/1-2
18K03010
16H03079
17H00875
18K12015
20H04581
17H06342
20K03479
20KK0054
20J21976
31530032
2018B030335001
DGE-1839285
2016/23/G/HS6/01775
SFRH/BD/126304/2016
20178293XT
2020/36/T/HS6/00256
APVV-18-0140
APVV-17-0418
APVV-17-0596
950-224884
2016-06793
2020SJA0017
2019/33/N/HS6/00054
UID/PSI/03125/2019
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