A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet reduces body mass without compromising performance in powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting athletes

Journal article


Greene, David A., Varley, Benjamin J., Hartwig, Timothy B., Chapman, Phillip and Rigney, Michael. (2018). A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet reduces body mass without compromising performance in powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting athletes. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 32(12), pp. 3373 - 3382. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002904
AuthorsGreene, David A., Varley, Benjamin J., Hartwig, Timothy B., Chapman, Phillip and Rigney, Michael
Abstract

Greene, DA, Varley, BJ, Hartwig, TB, Chapman, P, and Rigney, M. A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet reduces body mass without compromising performance in powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(12): 3382–3391, 2018—Weight class athletes use weight-making strategies to compete in specific weight categories with an optimum power-to-weight ratio. There is evidence that low carbohydrate diets might offer specific advantages for weight reduction without the negative impact on strength and power previously hypothesized to accompany carbohydrate restriction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) could be used as a weight reduction strategy for athletes competing in the weight class sports of powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting. Fourteen intermediate to elite competitive lifting athletes (age 34 ± 10.5, n = 5 female) consumed an ad libitum usual diet (UD) (>250 g daily intake of carbohydrates) and an ad libitum LCKD (≤50 g or ≤10% daily intake of carbohydrates) in random order, each for 3 months in a crossover design. Lifting performance, body composition, resting metabolic rate, blood glucose, and blood electrolytes were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The LCKD phase resulted in significantly lower body mass (−3.26 kg, p = 0.038) and lean mass (−2.26 kg, p = 0.016) compared with the UD phase. Lean mass losses were not reflected in lifting performances that were not different between dietary phases. No other differences in primary or secondary outcome measures were found between dietary phases. Weight class athletes consuming an ad libitum LCKD decreased body mass and achieved lifting performances that were comparable with their UD. Coaches and athletes should consider using an LCKD to achieve targeted weight reduction goals for weight class sports.

Keywordsweight-making; strength; powerlifters; Olympic weight lifters; weight loss; carbohydrate restriction
Year2018
JournalThe Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Journal citation32 (12), pp. 3373 - 3382
PublisherLippincott Williams and Wilkins
ISSN1533-4287
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002904
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85057144969
Page range3373 - 3382
Research GroupSports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies (SPRINT) Research Centre
Publisher's version
File Access Level
Controlled
Place of publicationUnited States of America
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Greene, David A. and Naughton, Geraldine A,. (2011). Calcium and vitamin-D supplementation on bone structural properties in peripubertal female identical twins: A randomised controlled trial. Osteoporosis International (print version). 22(2), pp. 489 - 498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-010-1317-z
The assessment of adolescent female athletes using standing and reactive long jumps
Moresi, Mark Peter, Bradshaw, Elizabeth, Greene, David A. and Naughton, Geraldine A.. (2011). The assessment of adolescent female athletes using standing and reactive long jumps. Sports Biomechanics (print version). 10(2), pp. 73 - 84. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2011.569564
Skeletal differences at the ulna and radius between pre-pubertal non-elite female gymnasts and non-gymnasts
Burt, Lauren A., Naughton, Geraldine A., Greene, David A. and Ducher, Gaele. (2011). Skeletal differences at the ulna and radius between pre-pubertal non-elite female gymnasts and non-gymnasts. The Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. 11(3), pp. 227 - 233.
Effect of acute exercise and dietary manipulation on hepatic triglycerides
Johnson, Nathan and Chapman, Phil. (2010). Effect of acute exercise and dietary manipulation on hepatic triglycerides. Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport. Australia: Elsevier. pp. 89 - 89
Upper body bone strength in pre-pubertal, non-elite gymnasts and non-gymnasts
Burt, Lauren, Naughton, Geraldine, Greene, David and Ducher, Gaele. (2010). Upper body bone strength in pre-pubertal, non-elite gymnasts and non-gymnasts. Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport. Australia: Elsevier. pp. 37 - 37
Whole body vibration for preventing and treating osteoporosis (protocol)
Lorenzen, Christian, Naughton, Geraldine, Cameron, Lainie, Williams, Morgan and Greene, David. (2010). Whole body vibration for preventing and treating osteoporosis (protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Jump kinetics, bone health and nutrition in elite adolescent female athletes
Greene, David Anthony, Moresi, Mark Peter, Naughton, Geraldine Ann and Bradshaw, Elizabeth Jane. (2010). Jump kinetics, bone health and nutrition in elite adolescent female athletes. XXVIIIth International of Society of Bioemchanics in Sports Conference. USA: International Society of Biomechanics. pp. 191 - 194
Calcium and vitamin-D supplementation on bone structural properties in peripubertal female identical twins: A randomised controlled trial
Greene, David A. and Naughton, Geraldine A.. (2010). Calcium and vitamin-D supplementation on bone structural properties in peripubertal female identical twins: A randomised controlled trial. Osteoporosis International. 22(2), pp. 489 - 498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-010-1317-z
Effect of standing posture during whole body vibration training on muscle morphology and function in older adults: A randomised controlled trial
Mikhael, Monica, Orr, Rhonda, Amsen, Fleur, Greene, David and Fiatarone Singh, Maria. (2010). Effect of standing posture during whole body vibration training on muscle morphology and function in older adults: A randomised controlled trial. BMC Geriatrics. 10(74), pp. 1 - 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-10-74
Beverage temperatures at aid stations: Port Macquarie Ironman.
O'Connor, Helen, Johnson, Nathan and Chapman, Phil. (2010). Beverage temperatures at aid stations: Port Macquarie Ironman. Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport. Australia: Elsevier. pp. 87 - 87
Recreational gymnastics: strengthening the musculoskeletal system in young girls
Burt, Lauren, Naughton, Geraldine, Greene, David and Ducher, Gaele. (2010). Recreational gymnastics: strengthening the musculoskeletal system in young girls. American society for bone and mineral research annual meeting. United States of America: American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. pp. 15 - 15
The limits to prolonged exercise in the heat: Heart or brain?
Chapman, Phil. (2010). The limits to prolonged exercise in the heat: Heart or brain? Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport. Australia: Elsevier. pp. 60 - 60
Prostate cancer, masculinity and food. Rationales for perceived diet change
Mroz, L, Chapman, G, Oliffe, J and Bottorff, Joan. (2010). Prostate cancer, masculinity and food. Rationales for perceived diet change. Appetite. 55(3), pp. 398 - 406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2010.07.009
Effect of drink temperature on core temperature and endurance cycling performance in warm, humid conditions
Burdon, Catriona, O'Connor, Helen, Gifford, Janelle, Shirreffs, S, Chapman, Phillip and Johnson, Nathan. (2010). Effect of drink temperature on core temperature and endurance cycling performance in warm, humid conditions. Journal of Sports Sciences. 28(11), pp. 1147 - 1156. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.489197
Load, stress, and recovery in adolescent rugby union players during a competitive season
Hartwig, Timothy B., Naughton, Geraldine and Searl, John. (2009). Load, stress, and recovery in adolescent rugby union players during a competitive season. Journal of Sports Sciences. 27(10), pp. 1087 - 1094. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903096611
Influence of drop-landing exercises on bone geometry and biomechanical properties in prepubertal girls: A randomized controlled study
Greene, David A., Wiebe, Peter N. and Naughton, Geraldine A.. (2009). Influence of drop-landing exercises on bone geometry and biomechanical properties in prepubertal girls: A randomized controlled study. Calcified Tissue International. 85(2), pp. 94 - 103. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-009-9253-7
Training and competition demands of adolescent rugby union players
Hartwig, Timothy B.. (2009). Training and competition demands of adolescent rugby union players [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a95f25cc6818
Exogenous glucose oxidation is reduced with carbohydrate feeding during exercise after starvation
Rowlands, David S., Johnson, Nathan A., Thomson, Jasmine A., Chapman, Phil and Stannard, Stephen R.. (2009). Exogenous glucose oxidation is reduced with carbohydrate feeding during exercise after starvation. Metabolism: Clinical and experimental. 58(8), pp. 1161 - 1169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2009.03.016
Bone health and strength of elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics and track-and-field
Naughton, Geraldine and Greene, David. (2008). Bone health and strength of elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics and track-and-field [Dataset]. Australian Catholic University. https://doi.org/10.26199/acu.8qvq9
Defining the volume and intensity of sport participation in adolescent rugby union players
Hartwig, Tim, Naughton, Geraldine and Searl, John. (2008). Defining the volume and intensity of sport participation in adolescent rugby union players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 3(1), pp. 94 - 106. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.3.1.94
Understanding participation among adolescent Rugby Union players
Hartwig, Timothy Bryan, Carlson, John and Naughton, Geraldine Ann. (2008). Understanding participation among adolescent Rugby Union players. In Toivo Jurimae, Neil Armstrong and Jaak Jurimae (Ed.). 24th Pediatric Work Physiology Meeting. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 194 - 198
Explosive and reactive horizontal jump assessment: Reliability and validity for athletic populations
Moresi, Mark Peter, Greene, David Anthony, Bradshaw, Elizabeth Jane and Naughton, Geraldine Ann. (2008). Explosive and reactive horizontal jump assessment: Reliability and validity for athletic populations. In Young-Hoo Kwon, Jaeho Shim and Jae Kun Shim & In-Sik Shin (Ed.). XXVI International Conference on Biomechanics; in Sports. Seoul, Korea: Seoul National University. pp. 514 - 517
A movement analysis comparison in two models of junior sport
Hartwig, Tim and Naughton, Geraldine. (2007). A movement analysis comparison in two models of junior sport. Pediatric Exercise Science. 19(1), pp. 61 - 69. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.19.1.61
Effect of altered pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on selection and perception of effort during prolonged cycling
Johnson, Nathan, Stannard, Stephen, Chapman, Phil and Thompson, Martin. (2006). Effect of altered pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on selection and perception of effort during prolonged cycling. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 98(1), pp. 62 - 70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0243-4
Short-term suppression of plasma free fatty acids fails to improve insulin sensitivity when intramyocellular lipid is elevated
Johnson, Nathan, Stannard, Stephen, Rowlands, David, Chapman, Phil, Thompson, Campbell, Sachinwalla, Toos and Thompson, Martin. (2006). Short-term suppression of plasma free fatty acids fails to improve insulin sensitivity when intramyocellular lipid is elevated. Diabetic Medicine. 23(10), pp. 1061 - 1068. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01952.x
Effect of a six-month training programme on the physical capacities of Romanian schoolchildren
Greene, David, Serbescu, Carmen, Flora, D., Hantiu, Iacob, Benhamou, Claude Laurent and Courteix, Daniel. (2006). Effect of a six-month training programme on the physical capacities of Romanian schoolchildren. Acta Paediatrica. 10(10), pp. 1258 - 1265. https://doi.org/10.1080/08035250600599719
A challenge to fitness testing in primary schools
Naughton, Geraldine, Greene, David and Carlson, John. (2006). A challenge to fitness testing in primary schools. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 9(February), pp. 40 - 45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.01.002
Effect of short-term starvation versus high-fat diet on intramyocellular triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in physically fit men
Johnson, Nathan, Stannard, Stephen, Rowlands, David, Chapman, Phil, Thompson, Campbell, O'Connor, Helen, Sachinwalla, Toos and Thompson, Martin. (2006). Effect of short-term starvation versus high-fat diet on intramyocellular triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in physically fit men. Experimental Physiology. 91(4), pp. 693 - 703. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2006.033399
Assessment of bone strength at differentially-loaded skeletal regions in adolescent middle-distance runners
Greene, David, Naughton, Geraldine, Briody, Julie, Kemp, Allan and Woodhead, Helen. (2006). Assessment of bone strength at differentially-loaded skeletal regions in adolescent middle-distance runners. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 9(3), pp. 221 - 230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.03.030
Adaptive skeletal responses to mechanical loading during adolescence
Greene, David and Naughton, Geraldine A.. (2006). Adaptive skeletal responses to mechanical loading during adolescence. Sports Medicine. 36(9), pp. 723 - 732. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200636090-00001
Bone and muscle geometry in female adolescent middle-distance runners
Greene, David, Naughton, Geraldine, Briody, Julie, Kemp, Allan and Woodhead, Helen. (2005). Bone and muscle geometry in female adolescent middle-distance runners. Pediatric Exercise Science. 17(4), pp. 377 - 389. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.17.4.377
Exercise type, musculoskeletal health and injury risk factors in adolescent middle-distance runners
Greene, David. (2005). Exercise type, musculoskeletal health and injury risk factors in adolescent middle-distance runners [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a94b3b15e4b9
Bone strength index in adolescent girls: Does physical activity make a difference?
Greene, David, Naughton, Geraldine, Briody, Julie and Corrigan, L.. (2005). Bone strength index in adolescent girls: Does physical activity make a difference? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 39(9), pp. 622 - 627. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.014498