Effect of an isometric or eccentric hip extension exercise intervention on hamstring strength, architecture, and morphology

Journal article


Carmichael, Declan S., Hickey, Jack T., Tofari, Paul J., Bourne, Matthew N., Ward, Mark R. and Timmins, Ryan G.. (2022). Effect of an isometric or eccentric hip extension exercise intervention on hamstring strength, architecture, and morphology. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 54(12), pp. 2196-2207. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000003012
AuthorsCarmichael, Declan S., Hickey, Jack T., Tofari, Paul J., Bourne, Matthew N., Ward, Mark R. and Timmins, Ryan G.
Abstract

Purpose
This study aimed to investigate hamstring architectural, strength, and morphological adaptations after an eccentric or isometric hip extension exercise intervention.

Methods
Twenty-four recreationally active males performed either an eccentric (n = 12) or an isometric hip extension (n = 12) exercise intervention, twice per week for 6 wk, followed by a 4-wk detraining period. Biceps femoris long head (BFlh) architecture was assessed pre-intervention, mid-intervention, post-intervention, and post-detraining via two-dimensional ultrasound. Strength was assessed pre-intervention, post-intervention, and post-detraining during an isokinetic knee flexion, an isometric hip extension, a Nordic hamstring exercise, and a single-leg hamstring bridge repetition to fatigue test. Hamstring muscle morphology was assessed via magnetic resonance imaging before strength testing sessions.

Results
The eccentric hip extension exercise intervention significantly lengthened BFlh fascicles (+19.7%, P < 0.001, d = 1.57), increased eccentric knee flexion torque (ECC 60°·s−1, +12%, P < 0.005, d = 0.66; ECC 180°·s−1, +8.3%, P < 0.05, d = 0.41), and increased BFlh (+13.3%, P < 0.001, d = 1.96) and semimembranosus (SM) muscle volume (+12.5%, P < 0.001, d = 2.25). After 4 wk of detraining, BFlh fascicles were significantly shortened in the eccentric group (−14.8%, P < 0.005, d = −1.25), whereas eccentric knee flexion torque and BFlh and SM volumes were unchanged. The isometric hip extension exercise intervention significantly increased isometric knee flexion torque (+10.4%, P < 0.05, d = 0.54), isometric hip extension force (+12.4%, P < 0.05, d = 0.41), and semitendinosus volume (+15%, P = 0.054, d = 1.57). All other outcome measures saw no significant changes. After 4 wk of detraining, no significant changes to any variables were observed in the isometric group.

Conclusions
The eccentric but not isometric hip extension exercise intervention significantly increased BFlh fascicle length. Both exercise interventions demonstrated contraction mode–specific increases in strength. However, the eccentric hip extension exercise intervention resulted in preferential hypertrophy of BFlh and SM, and the isometric hip extension exercise intervention led to selective hypertrophy of semitendinosus.

Keywordshamstring injury; resistance training; fascicle length; muscle volume
Year2022
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Journal citation54 (12), pp. 2196-2207
PublisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN0195-9131
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000003012
PubMed ID35941515
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85141936697
Page range2196-2207
FunderAustralian Catholic University (ACU)
La Trobe University
Publisher's version
License
All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
OnlineDec 2022
Publication process dates
AcceptedJul 2022
Deposited02 Jun 2023
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Maniar, Nirav, Shielf, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Opar, David A.. (2016). Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(15), pp. 909-920. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095311
Is there evidence to support the use of the angle of peak torque as a marker of hamstring injury and re-injury risk?
Timmins, Ryan G., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A.. (2016). Is there evidence to support the use of the angle of peak torque as a marker of hamstring injury and re-injury risk? Sports Medicine. 46(1), pp. 7-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0378-8
Short biceps femoris fascicles and eccentric knee flexor weakness increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite football (soccer): a prospective cohort study
Timmins, Ryan G., Bourne, Matthew N., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2016). Short biceps femoris fascicles and eccentric knee flexor weakness increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite football (soccer): a prospective cohort study. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(24). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095362
Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training
Timmins, Ryan G., Ruddy, Joshua D., Presland, Joel, Maniar, Nirav and Williams, Morgan. (2016). Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 48(3), pp. 499-508. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000795
Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation
Tofari, Paul J., Opar, David, Kemp, Justin Guy, Billaut, Francois and Cormack, Stuart John. (2016). Reliability of measures of quadriceps muscle function using magnetic stimulation. Muscle & Nerve. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.24926
Architectural adaptations of muscle to training and injury: A narrative review outlining the contributions by fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness
Timmins, Ryan G., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D., Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2016). Architectural adaptations of muscle to training and injury: A narrative review outlining the contributions by fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(23). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094881
Tactical combat movements: inter-individual variation in performance due to the effects of load carriage
Hunt, Andrew P., Tofari, Paul J., Billing, Daniel C. and Silk, Aaron J.. (2016). Tactical combat movements: inter-individual variation in performance due to the effects of load carriage. Ergonomics. 59(9), pp. 1232 - 1241. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2015.1132780
What do submarines have in common with diabetes?
Rio, Ebony, Timmins, Ryan Gregory and Opar, David. (2016). What do submarines have in common with diabetes? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(16), pp. 955 - 956. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096646
Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Duhig, Steven and Shield, Anthony J.. (2015). Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(4). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000465
The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Hickey, Jack, Duhig, Steven J. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2015). The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(2), pp. 377-384. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514556638
Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(5), pp. 905 - 913. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000507
Effects of Military Load Carriage on Susceptibility to Enemy Fire During Tactical Combat Movements
Billing, Daniel C., Silk, Aaron J., Tofari, Paul J. and Hunt, Andrew P.. (2015). Effects of Military Load Carriage on Susceptibility to Enemy Fire During Tactical Combat Movements. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(11S), pp. S134 - S138. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001036
Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training
Timmins, Ryan Gregory. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a9cbd05b0b98
Changes in running performance after four weeks of interval training in Australian Footballers : A single-blind placebo-controlled study
McLean, Blake, Tofari, Paul, Gore, Christopher and Kemp, Justin. (2015). Changes in running performance after four weeks of interval training in Australian Footballers : A single-blind placebo-controlled study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(11), pp. 3206 - 3215. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000984
Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running
Timmins, R. G., Opar, D. A., Williams, M. D., Schache, A. G., Dear, N. M. and Shield, A. J.. (2014). Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4), pp. e299-e305. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12171
The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League
Hickey, Jack, Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A. (2014). The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48(8), pp. 729-730. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092884
A quantification of the physiological demands of the army emergency responder in the Australian Army
Tofari, Paul J., Laing Treloar, Alison K. and Silk, Aaron J.. (2013). A quantification of the physiological demands of the army emergency responder in the Australian Army. Military Medicine. 178(5), pp. 487 - 494. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00423
Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Dear, Nuala M. (2013). Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 41(1), pp. 116-125. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512462809
Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Dear, Nuala M. and Shield, Anthony J. (2013). Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3), pp. 696-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.11.004
A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance
Tofari, Paul J., McLean, Blake D., Kemp, Justin and Cormack, Stuart. (2011). A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 14(1), pp. 62 - 68.