The effect of feedback on resistance training performance and adaptations : A systematic review and meta-analysis

Journal article


Weakley, Jonathon, Cowley, Nicholas, Schoenfeld, Brad J., Read, Dale B., Timmins, Ryan G., García-Ramos, Amador and McGuckian, Thomas B.. (2023). The effect of feedback on resistance training performance and adaptations : A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 53, pp. 1789-1803. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-023-01877-2
AuthorsWeakley, Jonathon, Cowley, Nicholas, Schoenfeld, Brad J., Read, Dale B., Timmins, Ryan G., García-Ramos, Amador and McGuckian, Thomas B.
Abstract

Background
Augmented feedback is often used during resistance training to enhance acute physical performance and has shown promise as a method of improving chronic physical adaptation. However, there are inconsistencies in the scientific literature regarding the magnitude of the acute and chronic responses to feedback and the optimal method with which it is provided.

Objective
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to (1) establish the evidence for the effects of feedback on acute resistance training performance and chronic training adaptations; (2) quantify the effects of feedback on acute kinematic outcomes and changes in physical adaptations; and (3) assess the effects of moderating factors on the influence of feedback during resistance training.

Methods
Twenty studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Four databases were searched, and studies were included if they were peer-reviewed investigations, written in English, and involved the provision of feedback during or following dynamic resistance exercise. Furthermore, studies must have evaluated either acute training performance or chronic physical adaptations. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified Downs and Black assessment tool. Multilevel meta-analyses were performed to quantify the effects of feedback on acute and chronic training outcomes.

Results
Feedback enhanced acute kinetic and kinematic outputs, muscular endurance, motivation, competitiveness, and perceived effort, while greater improvements in speed, strength, jump performance, and technical competency were reported when feedback was provided chronically. Furthermore, greater frequencies of feedback (e.g., following every repetition) were found to be most beneficial for enhancing acute performance. Results demonstrated that feedback improves acute barbell velocities by approximately 8.4% (g = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36–0.90). Moderator analysis revealed that both verbal (g = 0.47, 95% CI 0.22–0.71) and visual feedback (g = 1.11, 95% CI 0.61–1.61) were superior to no feedback, but visual feedback was superior to verbal feedback. For chronic outcomes, jump performance might have been positively influenced (g = 0.39, 95% CI − 0.20 to 0.99) and short sprint performance was likely enhanced (g = 0.47, 95% CI 0.10–0.84) to a greater extent when feedback is provided throughout a training cycle.

Conclusions
Feedback during resistance training can lead to enhanced acute performance within a training session and greater chronic adaptations. Studies included in our analysis demonstrated a positive influence of feedback, with all outcomes showing superior results than when no feedback is provided. For practitioners, it is recommended that high-frequency, visual feedback is consistently provided to individuals when they complete resistance training, and this may be particularly useful during periods of low motivation or when greater competitiveness is beneficial. Alternatively, researchers must be aware of the ergogenic effects of feedback on acute and chronic responses and ensure that feedback is standardised when investigating resistance training.

Year2023
JournalSports Medicine
Journal citation53, pp. 1789-1803
PublisherSpringer
ISSN0112-1642
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-023-01877-2
PubMed ID37410360
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85164178875
PubMed Central IDPMC10432365
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Page range1789-1803
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online06 Jul 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted12 Jun 2023
Deposited05 Oct 2023
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Callahan, Marcus J., Parr, Evelyn B., Snijders, Tim, Conceição, Miguel S., Radford, Bridget E., Timmins, Ryan G., Devlin, Brooke L., Hawley, John A. and Camera, Donny M.. (2021). Skeletal muscle adaptive responses to different types of short-term exercise training and detraining in middle-age men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 53(10), pp. 2023-2036. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002684
Music can induce positive affect before football training, but is it maintained throughout training?
McGuckian, Thomas B. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2021). Music can induce positive affect before football training, but is it maintained throughout training? The Journal of Sport and Exercise Science. 5(1), pp. 39-48. https://doi.org/10.36905/jses.2021.01.06
Influence of age and maturation status on sprint acceleration characteristics in junior Australian football
Edwards, Toby, Weakley, Jonathon, Banyard, Harry G., Cripps, Ashley, Piggott, Benjamin, Haff, G. Gregory and Joyce, Christopher. (2021). Influence of age and maturation status on sprint acceleration characteristics in junior Australian football. Journal of Sports Sciences. 39(14), pp. 1585-1593. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2021.1886699
Lower limb muscle size after anterior cruciate ligament injury : A systematic review and meta-analysis
Dutaillis, Benjamin, Maniar, Nirav, Opar, David A., Hickey, Jack T. and Timmins, Ryan G.. (2021). Lower limb muscle size after anterior cruciate ligament injury : A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 51(6), pp. 1209-1226. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01419-0
Trunk, pelvis and lower limb coordination between anticipated and unanticipated sidestep cutting in females
Dutaillis, Benjamin, Opar, David A., Pataky, Todd, Timmins, Ryan G., Hickey, Jack T. and Maniar, Nirav. (2021). Trunk, pelvis and lower limb coordination between anticipated and unanticipated sidestep cutting in females. Gait & Posture. 85, pp. 131-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.12.011
The validity and reliability of wearable microtechnology for intermittent team sports : A systematic review
Crang, Zachary L., Duthie, Grant, Cole, Michael H., Weakley, Jonathon, Hewitt, Adam and Johnston, Rich D.. (2021). The validity and reliability of wearable microtechnology for intermittent team sports : A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 51(3), pp. 549-565. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01399-1
The validity and reliability of commercially available resistance training monitoring devices : A systematic review
Weakley, Jonathon, Morrison, Matthew, García-Ramos, Amador, Johnston, Rich, James, Lachlan and Cole, Michael H.. (2021). The validity and reliability of commercially available resistance training monitoring devices : A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 51(3), pp. 443-502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01382-w
Influence of countermovement depth on the countermovement jump-derived reactive strength index modified
Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro, Weakley, Jonathon, García-Pinillos, Felipe, Rojas, F. Javier and García-Ramos, Amador. (2021). Influence of countermovement depth on the countermovement jump-derived reactive strength index modified. European Journal of Sport Science. 21(12), pp. 1606-1616. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1845815
Anatomy of the hamstrings
Timmins, Ryan, Woodley, Stephanie, Shield, Anthony and Opar, David. (2020). Anatomy of the hamstrings. In In Thorborg , Kristian, Opar, David and Shield, Anthony (Ed.). Prevention and rehabilitation of hamstring injuries pp. 1-30 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-31638-9_1
Velocity loss thresholds reliably control kinetic and kinematic outputs during free weight resistance training
Pearson, Madison, García-Ramos, Amador, Morrison, Matthew, Ramirez-Lopez, Carlos, Dalton-Barron, Nicholas and Weakley, Jonathon. (2020). Velocity loss thresholds reliably control kinetic and kinematic outputs during free weight resistance training. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(18), p. Article 6509. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186509
Applied sport science for male age-grade rugby union in England
Till, Kevin, Weakley, Jonathon, Read, Dale B., Phibbs, Padraic, Darrall-Jones, Josh, Roe, Greg, Chantler, Sarah, Mellalieu, Stephen, Hislop, Michael, Stokes, Keith, Rock, Andrew and Jones, Ben. (2020). Applied sport science for male age-grade rugby union in England. Sports Medicine - Open. 6(1), p. Article 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-020-0236-6
Pain-free versus pain-threshold rehabilitation following acute hamstring strain injury : A randomized controlled trial
Hickey, Jack T., Timmins, Ryan G., Maniar, Nirav, Rio, Ebonie, Hickey, Peter F., Pitcher, Christian A., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A.. (2020). Pain-free versus pain-threshold rehabilitation following acute hamstring strain injury : A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 50(2), pp. 91-103. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2020.8895
Testing methods and physical qualities of male age grade rugby union players : A systematic review
Owen, Cameron, Till, Kevin, Weakley, Jonathon and Jones, Ben. (2020). Testing methods and physical qualities of male age grade rugby union players : A systematic review. PLoS ONE. 15(6), p. e0233796. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233796
Show me, tell me, encourage me : The effect of different forms of feedback on resistance training performance
Weakley, Jonathon, Wilson, Kyle, Till, Kevin, Banyard, Harry, Dyson, James, Phibbs, Padraic, Read, Dale and Jones, Ben. (2020). Show me, tell me, encourage me : The effect of different forms of feedback on resistance training performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(11), pp. 3157-3163. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002887
Preseason hip/groin strength and HAGOS scores are associated with subsequent injury in professional male soccer players
Bourne, Matthew N., Williams, Morgan, Jackson, Jeremy, Williams, Kate L., Timmins, Ryan G. and Pizzari, Tania. (2020). Preseason hip/groin strength and HAGOS scores are associated with subsequent injury in professional male soccer players. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 50(5), pp. 234-242. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2020.9022
Hamstring strength and architectural adaptations following inertial flywheel resistance training
Presland, Joel D., Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Hickey, Jack T., Maniar, Nirav, Lee Dow, Connor, Bourne, Matthew N. and Timmins, Ryan G.. (2020). Hamstring strength and architectural adaptations following inertial flywheel resistance training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 23(11), pp. 1093-1099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.04.007
Determinants of hamstring fascicle length in professional rugby league athletes
McGrath, Timothy M., Hulin, Billy T., Pickworth, Nathan, Clarke, Alex and Timmins, Ryan G.. (2020). Determinants of hamstring fascicle length in professional rugby league athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 23(5), pp. 524-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.12.006
Convergent validity, reliability, and sensitivity of a running test to monitor neuromuscular fatigue
Leduc, Cédric, Tee, Jason, Lacome, Mathieu, Weakley, Jonathon, Cheradame, Jeremy, Ramirez, Carlos and Jones, Ben. (2020). Convergent validity, reliability, and sensitivity of a running test to monitor neuromuscular fatigue. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15(8), pp. 1067-1073. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2019-0319
The association between visual exploration and passing performance in high-level U13 and U23 football players
McGuckian, Thomas B., Beavan, Adam, Mayer, Jan, Chalkley, Daniel and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2020). The association between visual exploration and passing performance in high-level U13 and U23 football players. Science and Medicine in Football. 4(4), pp. 278-284. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2020.1769174
Factors that impact self-reported wellness scores in elite Australian Footballers
Ruddy, Joshua D., Cormack, Stuart, Timmins, Ryan G., Sakadjian, Alex, Pietsch, Samuel, Carey, David L., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A.. (2020). Factors that impact self-reported wellness scores in elite Australian Footballers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 52(6), pp. 1427-1435. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002244
Differences in lower limb strength and structure after 12 weeks of resistance, endurance, and concurrent training
Timmins, Ryan G., Shamim, Baubak, Tofari, Paul J., Hickey, Jack T. and Camera, Donny M.. (2020). Differences in lower limb strength and structure after 12 weeks of resistance, endurance, and concurrent training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15(9), pp. 1223-1230. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2019-0788
The Quality, Quantity, and Intraindividual Variability of Sleep Among Students and Student-Athletes
Leduc, Cédric, Tee, Jason, Weakley, Jonathon, Ramírez, Carlos A. and Jones, Ben. (2020). The Quality, Quantity, and Intraindividual Variability of Sleep Among Students and Student-Athletes. Sports Health. 12(1), pp. 43 - 50. https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738119887966
The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% velocity loss thresholds on kinetic, kinematic, and repetition characteristics during the barbell back squat
Weakley, Jonathon, Ramirez-Lopez, Carlos, McLaren, Shaun, Dalton-Barron, Nicholas, Weaving, Dan, Jones, Ben, Till, Kevin and Banyard, Harry. (2020). The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% velocity loss thresholds on kinetic, kinematic, and repetition characteristics during the barbell back squat. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15(2), pp. 180-188. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-1008
Constraints on visual exploration of youth football players during 11v11 match-play : The influence of playing role, pitch position and phase of play
McGuckian, Thomas B., Cole, Michael H., Chalkley, Daniel, Jordet, Geir and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2020). Constraints on visual exploration of youth football players during 11v11 match-play : The influence of playing role, pitch position and phase of play. Journal of Sports Sciences. 38(6), pp. 658-668. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1723375
Criterion validity, and interunit and between-day reliability of the FLEX for measuring barbell velocity during commonly used resistance training exercises
Weakley, Jonathon, Chalkley, Daniel, Johnston, Rich, García-Ramos, Amador, Townshend, Andrew, Dorrell, Harry, Pearson, Madison, Morrison, Matthew and Cole, Michael. (2020). Criterion validity, and interunit and between-day reliability of the FLEX for measuring barbell velocity during commonly used resistance training exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(6), pp. 1519 - 1524. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003592
Reliability of the velocity achieved during the last repetition of sets to failure and its association with the velocity of the 1-repetition maximum
García-Ramos, Amador, Janicijevic, Danica, González-Hernández, Jorge M., Keogh, Justin W. L. and Weakley, Jonathon. (2020). Reliability of the velocity achieved during the last repetition of sets to failure and its association with the velocity of the 1-repetition maximum. PeerJ. 8, pp. 1 - 14. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8760
Application of velocity loss thresholds during free-weight resistance training: Responses and reproducibility of perceptual, metabolic, and neuromuscular outcomes
Weakley, Jonathon, McLaren, Shaun, Ramirez-Lopez, Carlos, García-Ramos, Amador, Dalton-Barron, Nicholas, Banyard, Harry, Mann, Bryan, Weaving, Dan and Jones, Ben. (2020). Application of velocity loss thresholds during free-weight resistance training: Responses and reproducibility of perceptual, metabolic, and neuromuscular outcomes. Journal of Sports Sciences. 38(5), pp. 477 - 485. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1706831
Hamstring myoelectrical activity during three different kettlebell swing exercises
Del Monte, Michael J., Opar, David, Timmins, Ryan G., Ross, James A., Keogh, Justin W. L. and Lorenzen, Christian. (2020). Hamstring myoelectrical activity during three different kettlebell swing exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(7), pp. 1953-1958. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002254
Effect of competition frequency on strength performance of powerlifting athletes
Pearson, Joshua, Spathis, Jemima G., van den Hoek, Daniel J., Owen, Patrick J., Weakley, Jonathon and Latella, Christopher. (2020). Effect of competition frequency on strength performance of powerlifting athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 34(5), pp. 1213 - 1219. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003563
Modeling the risk of team sport injuries : A narrative review of different statistical approaches
Ruddy, Joshua D., Cormack, Stuart J., Whiteley, Rod, Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Opar, David A.. (2019). Modeling the risk of team sport injuries : A narrative review of different statistical approaches. Frontiers in Physiology. 10, p. Article 829.
Session availability as a result of prior injury impacts the risk of subsequent non-contact lower limb injury in elite male australian footballers
Ruddy, Joshua D., Pietsch, Samuel, Maniar, Nirav, Cormack, Stuart J., Timmins, Ryan G., Williams, Morgan D., Carey, David L. and Opar, David A.. (2019). Session availability as a result of prior injury impacts the risk of subsequent non-contact lower limb injury in elite male australian footballers. Frontiers in Physiology. 10, p. 737. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00737
A novel device to assess hip strength : Concurrent validity and normative values in male athletes
O'Brien, Michael, Bourne, Matthew, Heerey, Joshua, Timmins, Ryan G. and Pizzari, Tania. (2019). A novel device to assess hip strength : Concurrent validity and normative values in male athletes. Physical Therapy in Sport. 35, pp. 63-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.11.006
Effect of concentric and eccentric hamstring training on sprint recovery, strength and muscle architecture in inexperienced athletes
Duhig, Steven J., Bourne, Matthew N., Buhmann, Robert L., Williams, Morgan, Minett, Geoffrey M., Roberts, Llion A., Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Sims, Casey and Shield, Anthony J.. (2019). Effect of concentric and eccentric hamstring training on sprint recovery, strength and muscle architecture in inexperienced athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 22(7), pp. 769 - 774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.01.010
Hamstring muscle activation and morphology are significantly altered 1-6 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with semitendinosus graft
Messer, Daniel J., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan Gregory and Bourne, Matthew N.. (2019). Hamstring muscle activation and morphology are significantly altered 1-6 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with semitendinosus graft. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-019-05374-w
Principles of the guidance of exploration for orientation and specification of action
van Andel, Steven, McGuckian, Thomas B., Chalkley, Daniel, Cole, Michael H. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2019). Principles of the guidance of exploration for orientation and specification of action. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 13, p. Article 231. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00231
Visual exploration when surrounded by affordances : Frequency of head movements is predictive of response speed
McGuckian, Thomas B., Cole, Michael H., Chalkley, Daniel, Jordet, Geir and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2019). Visual exploration when surrounded by affordances : Frequency of head movements is predictive of response speed. Ecological Psychology. 31(1), pp. 30-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/10407413.2018.1495548
Structure of force variability during squats performed with an inertial flywheel device under stable versus unstable surfaces
Moras, Gerard, Vázquez-Guerrero, Jairo, Fernández-Valdés, Bruno, Rosas-Casals, Marti, Weakley, Jonathon, Jones, Ben and Sampaio, Jaime. (2019). Structure of force variability during squats performed with an inertial flywheel device under stable versus unstable surfaces. Human Movement Science. 66, pp. 497 - 503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.05.022
Assessment of the load-velocity profile in the free-weight prone bench pull exercise through different velocity variables and regression models
García-Ramos, Amador, Ulloa-Díaz, David, Barboza-González, Paola, Rodríguez-Perea, Ángela, Martínez-García, Darío, Quidel-Catrilelbún, Mauricio, Guede-Rojas, Francisco, Cuevas-Aburto, Jesualdo, Janicijevic, Danica and Weakley, Jonathon. (2019). Assessment of the load-velocity profile in the free-weight prone bench pull exercise through different velocity variables and regression models. PLoS ONE. 14(2), pp. 1 - 12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212085
Razor hamstring curl and Nordic hamstring exercise architectural adaptations : Impact of exercise selection and intensity
Pollard, Christopher W., Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Bourne, Matthew N. and Timmins, Ryan Gregory. (2019). Razor hamstring curl and Nordic hamstring exercise architectural adaptations : Impact of exercise selection and intensity. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 29(5), pp. 706-715. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13381
Criterion validity of force and power outputs for a commonly used flywheel resistance training device and bluetooth app
Weakley, Jonathon, Fernández-Valdés, Bruno, Thomas, Liam, Ramirez-Lopez, Carlos and Jones, Ben. (2019). Criterion validity of force and power outputs for a commonly used flywheel resistance training device and bluetooth app. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33(5), pp. 1180 - 1184. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003132
The effects of augmented feedback on sprint, jump, and strength adaptations in rugby union players after a 4-week training program
Weakley, Jonathon, Till, Kevin, Sampson, John Andrew, Banyard, Harry, Leduc, Cédric, Wilson, Kyle M., Roe, Gregory A. B. and Jones, Ben. (2019). The effects of augmented feedback on sprint, jump, and strength adaptations in rugby union players after a 4-week training program. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14(9), pp. 1205 - 1211. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0523
Reliability and validity of different methods of estimating the one-repetition maximum during the free-weight prone bench pull exercise
García-Ramos, Amador, Barboza-González, Paola, Ulloa-Díaz, David, Rodríguez-Perea, Ángela, Martínez-García, Darío, Guede-Rojas, Francisco, Hinojosa-Riveros, Hans, Chirosa-Ríos, Luis Javier, Cuevas-Aburto, Jesualdo, Janicijevic, Danica and Weakley, Jonathon. (2019). Reliability and validity of different methods of estimating the one-repetition maximum during the free-weight prone bench pull exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences. 37(19), pp. 2205 - 2212. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1626071
Development and validation of a sensor-based algorithm for detecting visual exploratory actions
Chalkley, Daniel, Shepherd, Jonathan, McGuckian, Thomas B. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2018). Development and validation of a sensor-based algorithm for detecting visual exploratory actions. IEEE Sensors Letters. 2(2), pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/LSENS.2018.2839703
Organized chaos in late specialization team sports: Weekly training loads of elite adolescent rugby union players
Phibbs, Padraic J., Jones, Ben, Roe, Gregory A. B., Read, Dale B., Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Weakley, Jonathon, Rock, Andrew and Till, Kevin. (2018). Organized chaos in late specialization team sports: Weekly training loads of elite adolescent rugby union players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 32(5), pp. 1316 - 1323. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001965
An evidence-based framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring injury
Bourne, Matthew N., Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Opar, David, Pizzari, Tania, Ruddy, Joshua D., Sims, Casey, Williams, Morgan D. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2018). An evidence-based framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring injury. Sports Medicine. 48(2), pp. 251 - 267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0796-x
The effect of Nordic hamstring exercise training volume on biceps femoris long head architectural adaptation
Presland, J. D., Timmins, R. G., Bourne, M. N., Williams, M. D. and Opar, D. A.. (2018). The effect of Nordic hamstring exercise training volume on biceps femoris long head architectural adaptation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 28(7), pp. 1775-1783. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13085
The physical characteristics of specific phases of play during rugby union match play
Read, Dale B., Jones, Ben, Williams, Sean, Phibbs, Padraic J., Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Roe, Gregory A. B., Weakley, Jonathon, Rock, Andrew and Till, Kevin. (2018). The physical characteristics of specific phases of play during rugby union match play. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 13(10), pp. 1331 - 1336. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0625
Don’t turn blind! The relationship between exploration before ball possession and on-ball performance in association football
McGuckian, Thomas B., Cole, Michael H., Jordet, Geir, Chalkley, Daniel and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2018). Don’t turn blind! The relationship between exploration before ball possession and on-ball performance in association football. Frontiers in Psychology. 9(Article 2520). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02520
Understanding the relationship between coach and athlete perceptions of training intensity in youth sport
Scantlebury, Sean, Till, Kevin, Sawczuk, Tom, Weakley, Jonathon and Jones, Ben. (2018). Understanding the relationship between coach and athlete perceptions of training intensity in youth sport. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 32(11), pp. 3239 - 3245. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002204
The organised chaos of English adolescent rugby union: Influence of weekly match frequency on the variability of match and training loads
Phibbs, Padraic J., Jones, Ben, Roe, Gregory A. B., Read, Dale B., Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Weakley, Jonathon, Rock, Andrew and Till, Kevin. (2018). The organised chaos of English adolescent rugby union: Influence of weekly match frequency on the variability of match and training loads. European Journal of Sport Science. 18(3), pp. 341 - 348. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1418026
Between-day reliability and usefulness of a fitness testing battery in youth sport athletes: Reference data for practitioners
Sawczuk, Thomas, Jones, Ben, Scantlebury, Sean, Weakley, Jonathon, Read, Dale B., Costello, Nessan, Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Stokes, Keith A. and Till, Kevin. (2018). Between-day reliability and usefulness of a fitness testing battery in youth sport athletes: Reference data for practitioners. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 22(1), pp. 11 - 18. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2017.1360304
A systematic review of the technology-based assessment of visual perception and exploration behaviour in association football
McGuckian, Thomas B., Cole, Michael H. and Pepping, Gert-Jan. (2018). A systematic review of the technology-based assessment of visual perception and exploration behaviour in association football. Journal of Sports Sciences. 36(8), pp. 861-880. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1344780
Bigger, stronger, faster, fitter: The differences in physical qualities of school and academy rugby union players
Jones, Ben, Weaving, Dan, Tee, Jason, Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Weakley, Jonathon, Phibbs, Padraic J., Read, Dale B., Roe, Gregory A. B., Hendricks, Sharief and Till, Kevin. (2018). Bigger, stronger, faster, fitter: The differences in physical qualities of school and academy rugby union players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 36(21), pp. 2399 - 2404. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1458589
Infographic. Impact of the Nordic hamstring and hip extension exercises on hamstring architecture and morphology: Implications for injury prevention
Bourne, Matthew N., Pope, David, Duhig, Steven J., Timmins, Ryan G., Williams, Morgan D., Al Najjar, Aiman, Kerr, Graham K. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2018). Infographic. Impact of the Nordic hamstring and hip extension exercises on hamstring architecture and morphology: Implications for injury prevention. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 52(23), pp. 1490 - 1491. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098730
A novel apparatus to measure knee flexor strength during various hamstring exercises: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Hickey, Jack T., Hickey, Peter F., Maniar, Nirav, Timmins, Ryan G., Williams, Morgan D., Pitcher, Christian A. and Opar, David A.. (2018). A novel apparatus to measure knee flexor strength during various hamstring exercises: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 48(2), pp. 72 - 80. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2018.7634
Adaptations to concurrent training in combination with high protein availability: A comparative trial in healthy, recreationally active men
Shamim, Baubak, Devlin, Brooke L., Timmins, Ryan G., Tofari, Paul, Dow, Connor Lee, Coffey, Vernon G., Hawley, John A. and Camera, Donny M.. (2018). Adaptations to concurrent training in combination with high protein availability: A comparative trial in healthy, recreationally active men. Sports Medicine. 48(12), pp. 2869 - 2883. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0999-9
Impact of the Nordic hamstring and hip extension exercises on hamstring architecture and morphology: Implications for injury prevention
Bourne, Matthew N., Duhig, Steven J., Timmins, Ryan, Williams, Morgan, Opar, David, Najjar, Aiman Al, Kerr, Graham K. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2017). Impact of the Nordic hamstring and hip extension exercises on hamstring architecture and morphology: Implications for injury prevention. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51(5), pp. 469 - 477. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096130
Biceps femoris architecture : The association with injury and response to training
Timmins, Ryan. (2017). Biceps femoris architecture : The association with injury and response to training. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51(6), pp. 547-548. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097044
Validity of daily and weekly self-reported training load measures in adolescent athletes
Phibbs, Padraic J., Roe, Gregory, Jones, Ben, Read, Dale B., Weakley, Jonathon, Darrall-Jones, Joshua and Till, Kevin. (2017). Validity of daily and weekly self-reported training load measures in adolescent athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 31(4), pp. 1121 - 1126. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001708
There is strength in numbers for muscle injuries it is time to establish an international collaborative registry
Van Dyke, Nicol, Van der Made, Anne D., Timmins, Ryan, Opar, David and Tol, Johannes L.. (2017). There is strength in numbers for muscle injuries it is time to establish an international collaborative registry. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097318
Effect of prior injury on changes to biceps femoris architecture across an Australian football league season
Timmins, Ryan, Bourne, Matthew N., Hickey, Jack, Maniar, Nirav, Tofari, Paul, Williams, Morgan and Opar, David. (2017). Effect of prior injury on changes to biceps femoris architecture across an Australian football league season. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49(10), pp. 2102 - 2109. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001333
Criteria for progressing rehabilitation and determining return to play clearance following hamstring strain injury: A systematic review
Hickey, Jack, Timmins, Ryan G., Maniar, Nirav, Williams, Morgan and Opar, David. (2017). Criteria for progressing rehabilitation and determining return to play clearance following hamstring strain injury: A systematic review. Sports Medicine. 47(7). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0667-x
Predictive modeling of hamstring strain injuries in elite Australian footballers
Ruddy, Joshua, Shield, Anthony J., Maniar, Nirav, Williams, Morgan D., Duhig, Steven J., Timmins, Ryan, Hickey, Jack, Bourne, Matthew N. and Opar, David. (2017). Predictive modeling of hamstring strain injuries in elite Australian footballers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 50(5), pp. 1 - 30. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001527
Running exposure is associated with the risk of hamstring strain injury in elite Australian footballers
Ruddy, Joshua D., Pollard, Christopher, Timmins, Ryan, Williams, Morgan, Shield, Anthony and Opar, David. (2017). Running exposure is associated with the risk of hamstring strain injury in elite Australian footballers. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096777
Movement and physical demands of school and university rugby union match-play in England
Read, Dale, Weaving, Daniel, Phibbs, Padraic, Darrall-Jones, Joshua, Roe, Gregory, Weakley, Jonathon, Hendricks, Sharief, Till, Kevin and Jones, Ben. (2017). Movement and physical demands of school and university rugby union match-play in England. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2(1), pp. 1 - 7. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2016-000147
The effect of physical contact on changes in fatigue markers following rugby union field-based training
Roe, Gregory, Darrall-Jones, Joshua, Till, Kevin, Phibbs, Padraic, Read, Dale, Weakley, Jonathon, Rock, Andrew and Jones, Ben. (2017). The effect of physical contact on changes in fatigue markers following rugby union field-based training. European Journal of Sport Science. 17(6), pp. 647 - 655. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1287960
To jump or cycle? Monitoring neuromuscular function in rugby union players
Roe, Gregory, Darrall-Jones, Joshua, Till, Kevin, Phibbs, Padraic J., Read, Dale, Weakley, Jonathon and Jones, Ben. (2017). To jump or cycle? Monitoring neuromuscular function in rugby union players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(5), pp. 690 - 696. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0273
Biceps femoris architecture and strength in athletes with a prior ACL reconstruction
Timmins, Ryan G., Bourne, Matthew N., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David A.. (2016). Biceps femoris architecture and strength in athletes with a prior ACL reconstruction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 48(3), pp. 337-345. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000783
Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maniar, Nirav, Shielf, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Opar, David A.. (2016). Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(15), pp. 909-920. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095311
Is there evidence to support the use of the angle of peak torque as a marker of hamstring injury and re-injury risk?
Timmins, Ryan G., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A.. (2016). Is there evidence to support the use of the angle of peak torque as a marker of hamstring injury and re-injury risk? Sports Medicine. 46(1), pp. 7-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0378-8
Short biceps femoris fascicles and eccentric knee flexor weakness increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite football (soccer): a prospective cohort study
Timmins, Ryan G., Bourne, Matthew N., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2016). Short biceps femoris fascicles and eccentric knee flexor weakness increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite football (soccer): a prospective cohort study. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(24). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095362
Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training
Timmins, Ryan G., Ruddy, Joshua D., Presland, Joel, Maniar, Nirav and Williams, Morgan. (2016). Architectural changes of the biceps femoris long head after concentric or eccentric training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 48(3), pp. 499-508. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000795
Architectural adaptations of muscle to training and injury: A narrative review outlining the contributions by fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness
Timmins, Ryan G., Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D., Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2016). Architectural adaptations of muscle to training and injury: A narrative review outlining the contributions by fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(23). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094881
The effect of body mass on the 30-15 intermittent fitness test in rugby union players
Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Roe, Gregory A. B., Carney, Shane, Clayton, Ryan, Phibbs, Padraic J., Read, Dale B., Weakley, Jonathon, Till, Kevin and Jones, Ben. (2016). The effect of body mass on the 30-15 intermittent fitness test in rugby union players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 11(3), pp. 400 - 403. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0231
Between-days reliability and sensitivity of common fatigue measures in rugby players
Roe, Gregory A. B., Darrall-Jones, Joshua David, Till, Kevin, Phibbs, Padraic J., Read, Dale B., Weakley, Jonathon and Jones, Ben. (2016). Between-days reliability and sensitivity of common fatigue measures in rugby players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 11(5), pp. 581 - 586. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0413
What do submarines have in common with diabetes?
Rio, Ebony, Timmins, Ryan Gregory and Opar, David. (2016). What do submarines have in common with diabetes? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(16), pp. 955 - 956. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096646
Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Duhig, Steven and Shield, Anthony J.. (2015). Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(4). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000465
The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Hickey, Jack, Duhig, Steven J. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2015). The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(2), pp. 377-384. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514556638
Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(5), pp. 905 - 913. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000507
Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training
Timmins, Ryan Gregory. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a9cbd05b0b98
Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running
Timmins, R. G., Opar, D. A., Williams, M. D., Schache, A. G., Dear, N. M. and Shield, A. J.. (2014). Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4), pp. e299-e305. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12171
Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Dear, Nuala M. (2013). Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 41(1), pp. 116-125. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512462809
Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Dear, Nuala M. and Shield, Anthony J. (2013). Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3), pp. 696-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.11.004