Differences in lower limb strength and structure after 12 weeks of resistance, endurance, and concurrent training

Journal article


Timmins, Ryan G., Shamim, Baubak, Tofari, Paul J., Hickey, Jack T. and Camera, Donny M.. (2020). Differences in lower limb strength and structure after 12 weeks of resistance, endurance, and concurrent training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15(9), pp. 1223-1230. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2019-0788
AuthorsTimmins, Ryan G., Shamim, Baubak, Tofari, Paul J., Hickey, Jack T. and Camera, Donny M.
Abstract

Purpose: To investigate strength and structural adaptations after 12 weeks of resistance, endurance cycling, and concurrent training. Methods: Thirty-two healthy males undertook 12 weeks of resistance-only (RT; n = 10), endurance-only (END; n = 10), or concurrent resistance and endurance training (CONC; n = 12). Biceps femoris long head (BFlh) architecture, strength (3-lift 1-repetition maximum), and body composition were assessed. Results: Fascicle length of the BFlh reduced 15% (6%) (P < .001) and 9% (6%) (P < .001) in the END and CONC groups postintervention, with no change in the RT group (−4% [11%], P = .476). All groups increased BFlh pennation angle (CONC: 18% [9%], RT: 14% [8%], and END: 18% [10%]). Thickness of the BFlh increased postintervention by 7% (6%) (P = .002) and 7% (7%) (P = .003) in the CONC and RT groups, respectively, but not in the END group (0% [3%], P = .994). Both the CONC and RT groups significantly increased by 27% (11%) (P < .001) and 33% (12%) (P < .001) in 3-lift totals following the intervention, with no changes in the END cohort (6% [6%], P = .166). No significant differences were found for total body (CONC: 4% [2%], RT: 4% [2%], and END: 3% [2%]) and leg (CONC: 5% [3%], RT: 6% [3%], and END: 5% [3%]) fat-free mass. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of RT, END, or CONC significantly modified BFlh architecture. This study suggests that conventional resistance training may dampen BFlh fascicle shortening from cycling training while increasing strength simultaneously in concurrent training. Furthermore, the inclusion of a cycle endurance training stimulus may result in alterations to hamstring architecture that increase the risk of future injury. Therefore, the incorporation of endurance cycling training within concurrent training paradigms should be reevaluated when trying to modulate injury risk.

Keywordsfascicle length; cycling; muscle injury; hamstring
Year2020
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Journal citation15 (9), pp. 1223-1230
PublisherHuman Kinetics Publishers
ISSN1555-0265
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2019-0788
Scopus EID2-s2.0-85095448450
Open accessPublished as green open access
Research or scholarlyResearch
Page range1223-1230
FunderAustralian Catholic University
Author's accepted manuscript
File Access Level
Open
Publisher's version
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All rights reserved
File Access Level
Controlled
Output statusPublished
Publication process dates
Deposited21 May 2021
Grant IDACU/36331
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Hunt, Andrew P., Tofari, Paul J., Billing, Daniel C. and Silk, Aaron J.. (2016). Tactical combat movements: inter-individual variation in performance due to the effects of load carriage. Ergonomics. 59(9), pp. 1232 - 1241. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2015.1132780
Protein coingestion with alcohol following strenuous exercise attenuates alcohol-induced intramyocellular apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy
Smiles, William J., Parr, Evelyn B., Coffey, Vernon G., Lacham-Kaplan, Orly, Hawley, John Alan and Camera, Donny Michael. (2016). Protein coingestion with alcohol following strenuous exercise attenuates alcohol-induced intramyocellular apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. 311(5), pp. E836 - E849. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00303.2016
Attenuated PGC-1a isoforms following endurance exercise with blood flow restriction
Conceição, Miguel Soares, Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina, Telles, Guilherme Defante, Libardi, Cleiton Augusto, Junior, Edson Manoel Mendes, Vechin, Felipe Cassaro, Lugani de Andrade, André Luis, Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes, Brum, Patricia Chakur, Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina, Serag, Sara, Spiegelman, Bruce M., Hawley, John Alan and Camera, Donny Michael. (2016). Attenuated PGC-1a isoforms following endurance exercise with blood flow restriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 16(4809), pp. 1699 - 1707. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000970
What do submarines have in common with diabetes?
Rio, Ebony, Timmins, Ryan Gregory and Opar, David. (2016). What do submarines have in common with diabetes? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50(16), pp. 955 - 956. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096646
Selective modulation of microRNA expression with protein ingestion following concurrent resistance and endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle
Camera, Donny Michael, Ong, Jun N., Coffey, Vernon Glenn and Hawley, John Alan. (2016). Selective modulation of microRNA expression with protein ingestion following concurrent resistance and endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle. Frontiers in Physiology. 7(Mar), pp. 1 - 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00087
Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Duhig, Steven and Shield, Anthony J.. (2015). Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(4). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000465
The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Hickey, Jack, Duhig, Steven J. and Shield, Anthony J.. (2015). The effect of previous hamstring strain injury on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 43(2), pp. 377-384. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514556638
Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study
Timmins, Ryan Gregory, Shield, Anthony, Williams, Morgan, Lorenzen, Christian and Opar, David. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: A reliability and retrospective injury study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47(5), pp. 905 - 913. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000507
Effects of Military Load Carriage on Susceptibility to Enemy Fire During Tactical Combat Movements
Billing, Daniel C., Silk, Aaron J., Tofari, Paul J. and Hunt, Andrew P.. (2015). Effects of Military Load Carriage on Susceptibility to Enemy Fire During Tactical Combat Movements. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(11S), pp. S134 - S138. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001036
Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training
Timmins, Ryan Gregory. (2015). Biceps femoris long head architecture: The association with hamstring injury and response to training [Thesis]. https://doi.org/10.4226/66/5a9cbd05b0b98
Changes in running performance after four weeks of interval training in Australian Footballers : A single-blind placebo-controlled study
McLean, Blake, Tofari, Paul, Gore, Christopher and Kemp, Justin. (2015). Changes in running performance after four weeks of interval training in Australian Footballers : A single-blind placebo-controlled study. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 29(11), pp. 3206 - 3215. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000984
Need for measures of satellite cell activation along with muscle protein synthesis?
Camera, Donny and Hawley, John. (2015). Need for measures of satellite cell activation along with muscle protein synthesis? Journal of Applied Physiology. 118(4), pp. 500 - 500. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00609.2014.
Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training
Parr, Evelyn, Camera, Donny, Areta, José, Burke, Louise, Phillips, Stuart, Hawley, John A. and Coffey, Vernon. (2014). Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training. PLoS ONE. 9(2), pp. 1 - 9. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088384
Beyond muscle hypertrophy: Why dietary protein is important for endurance athletes
Moore, Daniel, Camera, Donny, Areta, José and Hawley, John A.. (2014). Beyond muscle hypertrophy: Why dietary protein is important for endurance athletes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 39(9), pp. 987 - 997. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0591
Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is reduced by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit
Areta, José, Burke, Louise, Camera, Donny, West, Daniel, Crawshay, Siobhan, Moore, Daniel, Stellingwerff, Trent, Phillips, Stuart, Hawley, John A. and Coffey, Vernon. (2014). Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is reduced by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. 306(8), pp. E989 - E997. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00590.2013
Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running
Timmins, R. G., Opar, D. A., Williams, M. D., Schache, A. G., Dear, N. M. and Shield, A. J.. (2014). Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 24(4), pp. e299-e305. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12171
The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League
Hickey, Jack, Shield, Anthony J., Williams, Morgan D. and Opar, David A. (2014). The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48(8), pp. 729-730. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092884
Meteorin-like is a hormone that regulates immune-adipose interactions to increase beige fat thermogenesis
Rao, Rajesh, Long, Jonathan, White, James, Svensson, Katrin, Lou, Jesse, Lokurkar, Isha, Jedrychowski, Mark, Ruas, Jorge, Wrann, Christiane, Lo, James, Camera, Donny, Lachey, Jenn, Gygi, Steven, Seehra, Jasbir, Hawley, John and Spiegelman, Bruce. (2014). Meteorin-like is a hormone that regulates immune-adipose interactions to increase beige fat thermogenesis. Cell. 157(6), pp. 1279 - 1291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.065
Meteorin-like Is a Hormone that Regulates Immune-Adipose Interactions to Increase Beige Fat Thermogenesis
Rao, Rajesh, Long, Jonathan Z., White, James P., Svensson, Katrin J., Lou, Jesse, Lokurkar, Isha, Jedrychowski, Mark P., Ruas, Jorge L., Wrann, Christine D., Camera, Donny, Lachey, Jenn, Gygi, Steven, Seehra, Jasbir, Hawley, John and Spiegelman, Bruce M.. (2014). Meteorin-like Is a Hormone that Regulates Immune-Adipose Interactions to Increase Beige Fat Thermogenesis. Cell. 157(6), pp. 1279 - 1291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.065
A quantification of the physiological demands of the army emergency responder in the Australian Army
Tofari, Paul J., Laing Treloar, Alison K. and Silk, Aaron J.. (2013). A quantification of the physiological demands of the army emergency responder in the Australian Army. Military Medicine. 178(5), pp. 487 - 494. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00423
Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G. and Dear, Nuala M. (2013). Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 41(1), pp. 116-125. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512462809
Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings
Opar, David A., Williams, Morgan D., Timmins, Ryan G., Dear, Nuala M. and Shield, Anthony J. (2013). Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23(3), pp. 696-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.11.004
ERK1/2 in the brain mediates the effects of central resistin on reducing thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue
Kosari, Samin, Camera, Donny Michael, Hawley, John Alan, Stebbing, Martin and Badoer, Emilio. (2013). ERK1/2 in the brain mediates the effects of central resistin on reducing thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. 5(3), pp. 184 - 189.
Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis
Areta, José, Burke, Louise, Ross, M, Camera, Donny, West, D, Broad, E, Jeacocke, N, Moore, Daniel, Stellingwerff, T and Phillips, S. (2013). Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. The Journal of Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.244897
Skeletal muscle respiratory capacity is enhanced in rats consuming an obesogenic Western diet
Stephenson, E, Camera, Donny, Jenkins, T, Kosari, S, Lee, Joohyung, Hawley, John and Stepto, N. (2012). Skeletal muscle respiratory capacity is enhanced in rats consuming an obesogenic Western diet. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. 302(12), pp. E1541 - E1549. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00590.2011
Sex-based comparisons of myofibrillar protein synthesis after resistance exercise in the fed state
West, D, Burd, N, Churchward-Venne, T, Camera, Donny, Mitchell, Cameron, Baker, S, Hawley, John, Coffey, Vernon and Phillips, S. (2012). Sex-based comparisons of myofibrillar protein synthesis after resistance exercise in the fed state. Journal of Applied Physiology. 112(11), pp. 1805 - 1813. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00170.2012
Low muscle glycogen concentration does not suppress the anabolic response to resistance exercise
Camera, Donny, West, D, Burd, N, Phillips, S, Garnham, A, Hawley, John and Coffey, Vernon. (2012). Low muscle glycogen concentration does not suppress the anabolic response to resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 113(2), pp. 206 - 214. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00395.2012
No role for early IGF-1 signalling in stimulating acute 'muscle building' responses
Burd, Nicholas A., West, D. W., Camera, Donny and Breen, L.. (2011). No role for early IGF-1 signalling in stimulating acute 'muscle building' responses. The Journal of Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2011.207332
A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance
Tofari, Paul J., McLean, Blake D., Kemp, Justin and Cormack, Stuart. (2011). A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 14(1), pp. 62 - 68.
Early time course of akt phosphorylation after endurance and resistance exercise
Camera, Donny, Edge, J, Short, M, Hawley, John and Coffey, Vernon. (2010). Early time course of akt phosphorylation after endurance and resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 42(10), pp. 1843 - 1852. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d964e4
Short-term endurance training does not alter the oxidative capacity of human subcutaneous adipose tissue
Camera, Donny, Anderson, Malcolm, Hawley, John and Carey, A. (2010). Short-term endurance training does not alter the oxidative capacity of human subcutaneous adipose tissue. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 109(2), pp. 307 - 316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1356-3